| Neville 'kamau' Crawford HIDDEN
WOUNDS (1994) More.
and Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990.
artistic examples: 1) Armet Francis photographs the peoples of the Black Triangle
2) THE MIDDLE PASSAGE TOM FEELINGS "When I am asked who I am, I say, I am an African who was born in America. Both answers connect me specifically with my past and present ... therefore I bring to my art a quality which is rooted in the culture of Africa ... and expanded by the experience of being in America." (source)
1) How is identity defined by Stuart Hall? What has identity to do with subject position? Why is it both being and becoming? Does he show preference for one or the other? How does he use and revise Derrida idea of differance?
2) How does Hall describe the hybridity of Caribbean identity as a mixture of the African, European and American identity? Can we relate it to Taiwanese' hybrid identity?
3) How does Hall define diaspora identity? Do we share this sense of identity? How is it related to Brah's way of discussing diaspora as a theoretical concept (in terms of home/homeland, border, location and diaspora space)?
1. identity as oneness
p. 393 "This oneness, underlying all the other, more superficial differences, is the truth, the essence, of "Caribbeanness', of black experience. . . .
We should not, for a moment, underestimate or neglect the importance of the act of imaginative rediscovery which this conception of a rediscovered, essential identity entails."
2. identity as discontinuous points of identification
p. 394 "We cannot speak for very long, with any exactness, about 'one experience, one identity,' without acknowledging its other side--the ruptures and discontinuities which constitute, precisely, the Caribbean's 'uniqueness.'"
3. Derrida's differance is used to explain cultural difference.
p. 397 ". . . if signfication depends upon the endless repositioning of its differential terms, meaning, in any specific instance, depends on the contingent and arbitrary stop -- the necessary and temporary 'break' in the infinite semiosis of language. This does not detract from the original insight. It only threatens to do so if we mistake this 'cut' of identity--this positioning, which makes meaning possible-- as a natrual and permanent, rather than an arbitrary and contingent 'ending'--whereas I understand every such position as 'strategic' and arbitrary, in the sense that there is no permanent equivalence between the particular sentence we close, and its true meaning, as such.
4. The three traces in Caribbean Identity
5. p. 401-402 The diaspora experience as I intend it here is defined, not by essence or purity, but by the recognition of a necessary heterogeniety and diversity; by a conception of 'identity' which lives with and through, not despite, difference; by hybridity. Diaspora identities are those which are constantly producing and reproducing themselves anew, through transformation and difference.
Neville 'kamau' Crawford RESIST
'Across a whole range of cultural forms there is a 'syncretic' dynamic
which critically appropriates elements from the master-codes of the dominant
culture and 'creolises' them, disarticulating given signs and re-articulating
their symbolic meaning. The subversive force of this hybridizing tendency
is most apparent at the level of language itself where creoles, patois
and black English decentre, destablise and carnivalise the linguistic
domination of 'English'--the nation-language of master-discourse--through
strategic inflections, re-accentuations and other performative moves in
semantic, syntactic and lexical codes.
Jonathan Rutherford "A Place Called Home: Identity and the Culture Politics of Difference" 9-27 from Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990.
Gramsci described this articulation as 'the starting point of critical elaboration': it is the consciousness of what one really is, and in 'knowing thyself' as a product of the historical process to date which has deposited an infinity of traces, without leaving an inventory'. Identity marks the conjuncture of our past with the social, cultural and economic relations we live within. 'Each invididual is the synthesis not only of existing relations but of the history of these relations. He is a precis of the past.' ...
This politics of articulation eschews all forms of fixity and essentialism; social, political and class formations do not exist a priori, they are a product of articulation. Stuart Hall has termed this the politics of 'no necessary or essential corespondence of anything with anything' and it marks a significant break with a Marxism that has assumed an underlying totality to social relations.
politics of difference
The cultural politics of difference means living with incommensurability
through new ethical and democratic frameworks, within a culture that both
recognises difference and is commited to resolving its antagomisms.
politics of articulation--S. Hall
p. 107 It seems to me that it is possible to think aobut the nature of new political identities, which isn't founded on the notion of some absolute integral self and which clearly can't arise from some fully closed narrative of the self. A politics which accepts the 'no necessary or essential correspondence of anything with anything, and there has ....