Guibernau, Montserrat.
Introd. & Chaps 2-3

Kate Liu, 10/4, 96 
Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996. 
  1. Three approaches and his combination of political aspects of nationalism and the emotional/identity aspects

  2. ”@”@what is the relation between nationalism and nation-state?; and, what are the links between nationalism, culture and identity? My thesis is that national solidarity responds to a need for identity of an eminently symbolic nature, in so far as it provides roots based on culture and a common past, as well as offering a project for the future 
    Nationalism and the Nation-State”Šthe emotional and the political¤¬»²¤¬¦Ø 
    1. definitions”Šof state, nation, nationalism 
      • nation: a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself (47) 
      • differences between nation and nation-state (47-48)
    2. Origins of nations”Šethnicity and state formation 
    3. Citizenship and popular sovereignty 
    4. the cultural nation 
    5. the nation state and power”Što defend, to expand its power, and to control its citizen 
    6. Legitimate and illegitimate states 
    7. nationalism as ideology”Šdoes not need indoctrination, emanates from within
  3. National identity 
    1. the development of printing and its role in the expansion and consolidation of vernacular languages”Šthe impact of education and literacy levels in 19th century 
    2. the relationship between national identity and culture”Šthe emotional investment of individuals in the elements of their culture as a key factor exploited by nationalism 
    3. role and features of identity; linked to the creation of national consciousness

    4. --"nationalism emanates from this basic emotional attachment to one's land and culture." --boundary 'symbolises the community to its members in two different ways: it is the sense they have of its perception by people on the other side”Šthe public face and "typical" mode”Šand it is their sense of the community as refracted through all the complexities of their lives and experiences”Šthe private face and idiosyncratic mode' (Anthony Cohen) p. 81 
    5. symbolism and ritual 

    6. ”Šsymbols: imprecise, mask difference and highlight commonalty 
issue”ŠCan we have a nation without "common" national culture, common historical past, or common future project? 
”@”@p. 67 the role of vernacular language—not indispensable 
symbols: renewed or substituted? E.g. °źŗqµu¤ł; ¬ī®ü“Å”BÄH³½ 


  1. language”Šlanguage racialized and hierarchized 
  2. sentiment for fatherland”Šconstructed or natural? 
  3. national symbols”Šcan be substituted 
  4. transitional period in Taiwan's history”ŠKMT as a "colonizer" or an the "illegitimate" state? nation used as a device by elites seeking state power; 

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