Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth
Century. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996.
Three approaches and his combination of political aspects of nationalism
and the emotional/identity aspects
¡@¡@what is the relation between nationalism
and nation-state?; and, what are the links between nationalism, culture
and identity? My thesis is that national solidarity responds to a need
for identity of an eminently symbolic nature, in so far as it provides
roots based on culture and a common past, as well as offering a project
for the future.
Nationalism and the Nation-State¡Ðthe emotional and the
definitions¡Ðof state, nation, nationalism
nation: a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing
a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a
common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right
to rule itself (47)
differences between nation and nation-state (47-48)
Origins of nations¡Ðethnicity and state formation
Citizenship and popular sovereignty
the cultural nation
the nation state and power¡Ðto defend, to expand its power, and
to control its citizen
Legitimate and illegitimate states
nationalism as ideology¡Ðdoes not need indoctrination, emanates
issue¡ÐCan we have a nation without "common" national
culture, common historical past, or common future project?
the development of printing and its role in the expansion and consolidation
of vernacular languages¡Ðthe impact of education and literacy
levels in 19th century
the relationship between national identity and culture¡Ðthe
emotional investment of individuals in the elements of their culture
as a key factor exploited by nationalism
role and features of identity; linked to the creation of national consciousness
--"nationalism emanates from this basic emotional
attachment to one's land and culture." --boundary 'symbolises the community
to its members in two different ways: it is the sense they have of its
perception by people on the other side¡Ðthe public face and "typical"
mode¡Ðand it is their sense of the community as refracted through
all the complexities of their lives and experiences¡Ðthe private
face and idiosyncratic mode' (Anthony Cohen) p. 81
symbolism and ritual
¡Ðsymbols: imprecise, mask difference and highlight commonalty
¡@¡@p. 67 the role of vernacular languageŚnot indispensable
symbols: renewed or substituted? E.g. °êºqµu¤ù;
language¡Ðlanguage racialized and hierarchized
sentiment for fatherland¡Ðconstructed or natural?
national symbols¡Ðcan be substituted
transitional period in Taiwan's history¡ÐKMT as a "colonizer"
or an the "illegitimate" state? nation used as a device by elites seeking