definitions of Postcolonial
history of postcolonial
the post-war upsurge in literary creativity in the colonies
the persistence of colonial, neo-colonial or imperial influence in the
using theories of post-structuralism and postmodernism challenges the monolithic
or universal claims
In the 1800 Western powers claimed 35% of the earth's surface. (Said 8)
By 1878 Western powers claimed 67% of the earth's surface. (Said 8)
By 1914 Western powers claimed 85% of the earth's surface. (Said 8)
The metropolitan left-wing response to the 'Third-World' struggles of 1950s
The first school of Commonwealth Literature was founded at Leeds University
in 1964. (Commonwealth literature includes six nations which were Britain
colonies, India, Africa, West Indies, Canada, New Zealand, Australia. )
Post-war period of de-colonization: national identity
The Third World intellectuals pursue national and cultural identity in
their native land.
The Third World intellectuals pursue national and cultural identity from
the metropolitan center.
A. Frantz Fanon
Black Skin, White Masks (1952, trans. London: Pluto Press, 1986)
B. Chinua Achebe
Things Fall Apart (London: Heinemann, 1958)
C. Edward Said
The definition of Orientalism
It is an academic study.
It is based on ontological and epistemological distinction of the Orient
and the Occident.
Orientalism is a western style for dominating, reconstructing, and has
authority over the Orient. (Introduction 2-3)
Said's focus of research
the distinction of pure knowledge and political knowledge
the methodological question
the personal dimension
2. Culture and Imperialism
D. Aijaz Ahmad: Orientalism
and After (1992)
Said unravels the discourse of imperialism in 19th century British
The third world intellectuals reflects the spirit and movement of de-colonization
in their texts, i.e. Salman Rushdie, Gabrial Garcia Marquez, Sara Suleri,
to name a few.
the inevitability of cultural hybridity
E. Gayatri Chakravorty
Spivak ¡§Can the Subaltern Speak?¡¨
Ahmad approves the influence of Said¡¦s Orientalism. Ahmad
praises Said to points out the controversy of Western cultural hegemony.
Ahmad criticizes that Said somehow essentializes the Orient.
G. Homi Bhabha
subaltern studies group
Under the overwhelming influence of American and Japanese cultural hegemony,
what position will you take as an intellectual?
Ahmad Aijaz. "Orientalism and After: Ambivalence and Metropolitan
Location in the Work of Edward Said." In Theory: Classes, Nations,
Literatures. London: Verso, 1992. 159-219.
Do you think the Third World intellectuals can have double or multiple
identities without being used or being dominated the system of Western
Do you think Spivak¡¦s anti-universal is a position? How can
an intellectual without position define herself?
Could you find any values or ideas hybridized in Taiwan¡¦s
Bhabha, Homi. "The Other Question: Stereotype, discrimination and the
discourse of colonialism."¨ The Location of Culture. Lodon:
Routledge, 1994, 66-84.
Said, Edward, W. "Introduction" to Orientalism. Orientalism.
London: Penguin, 1995. 1-28.
- - . "Introduction" to Culture and Imperialism. Culture
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. "Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography."¨
Ed. Selected Works of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. New York: Routledge,
Walder, Denis. "Postcolonial Theory." Reclaiming the Boundaries.
Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Giles Gunn. New York: MLA, 1992. 159-69.