Freud on Child Development
the baby's 'erotogenic zone'--oral stage, anal stage, phallic
(or genital) stage--What is happening in this process...is a gradual organization
of the libidinal drives...
Fixation: If for some reason the individual is frustrated in
gratifying these needs during childhood, the adult personality may be warped
accordingly (that is, developement may be arrested or fixated). For
example, adults who are complusively fastidious may suffer...from an anal
fixation traceable to overly strict toilet training during early childhood.
compulsive cigarette smoking--oral fixation traceable to premature weaning.
The child is still not gendered.
Oedipus complex--around age five
The child who emerges from the pre-Oedipal stages we have been following
is not only anarchic and sadistic but incestuous to boot: the boy's close
involvement with his mother's body leads him to an unconscious desire for
sexual union with her, whereas the girl ...begins to turn her libido towards
the father. ...the parent of the same sex will come to figure as
a rival in its affections for the parent of the opposite sex.
What persuades the boy-child to abandon his incestuous desire
for the mother is the father's threat of castration. (exemplified
in the girl.) [The boy] thus represses his incestuous desire in anxious
resignation, adjust himself to the 'reality principle', submits to the
father, detaches himself from the mother, and comforts himself with the
unconscious consolation that though he cannot hope to oust his father
and possess his mother, his father symbolizes a place which he himself
will be able to take up and realize in the future. ...The boy makes
peace with his father, identifies with him, and is thus introduced into
the symbolic role of manhood. ...His earlier diffuse libido has become
organized through the Oedipus complex in a way which centers it upon genital
sexuality. If the boy is unable successfully to overcome the Oedipus
complex, he may be sexually incapacipated for such as role...homosexuality.
The girl--turns in disillusionment from her similarly 'castrated'
mother to the project of seducing her father; but since this project is
doomed, she must finally turn back reluctantly to the mother [?], effect
an identification with her, assume her feminine gender role, and unconsciously
substitute for the penis which she envies but can never possess a baby,
Questions: Is the daughter's "turn" to the mother reluctant?
Is penis-envy natural to everyone in every society?