Marxism - Campus Folk Song
In Marxism, one of the important assumptions is the idea of base and structure. Base is the economic structure of the society, such as the modes of economic production and the various social relationships resulted from the economic society. Superstructure is the values, religions, or some political and educational systems, which reflect the base. For Marx, everything in superstructure is reflected and influenced by the base; it reflects our economic aspect. The methodology of Marxism can be divided into three parts: class relations, ideology study, and social - historical analysis. In my journal, I will focus on the study of ideology. Ideology is a formal domination, and a system of ideas and representations that let people accept or spread them in conscious or unconscious. In this way, we can say that the ideology is the hegemony (control by consent). Ideology can be the mediation or hegemony between the relationships of superstructure and base, self and economics, and art and production of art works. From this point, I will discuss the study of ideology of one of the popular categories in campus folk song - love of remote.
One of the categories of the love of remote is "unknown and distant place". The song of "橄欖樹" sung by 齊豫, can be an example of this category. There are several elements that can support this song become the category of "unknown and distant place". First of all, the sentence "不要問我從哪裡來" is the element that give people a feeling that this person doesn't have the past, or he or she wants to forget the past. Secondly, the sentence "流浪遠方流浪" is the element that refers to the wandering to an unknown and distant place. Thirdly, sentences of "天空飛翔的小鳥, 山間清流的小溪, 寬闊的草原" are elements of innocence. The reason is that at that time, most of the campus folk song would use nature to present the feeling of innocence and naive. Or we can say that these sentences offer the element of freedom. Finally, the sentence of "夢中的橄欖樹" refers to the element and symbolizes that it's a dream and pursuit for the person. All these elements support the song become the categories of love of remote. Besides, the song doesn't refer to the reason and the destination of the wandering; it also reflects the elements of irresponsibility. All these elements can show the ideology of the theme of wandering - people who wander to an unknown and distant place, or leave their country, or have the feeling of thinking of their country.
Then, I will discuss that why there are so many songs which talk about the love of remote can be popular between 1977~ 1983. It's because that there are also many ideologies that are exist in the society (political and nonpolitical elements). We can divide political elements into three parts. First of all, during 1977~1983, there are several important events happened in Taiwan, such as Taiwan severed the diplomatic ties with America, the movements of "保釣", and "美麗島事件". These events let people start to wander their roles. Secondly, because of these events, the political situation at that time became more and more tense and stern. At that time, most of the students in the university were afraid to write or discuss something related to politics, because it might be listed into the "黑名單" or be misled. Hence, most of the writers of the song only wrote something related to love or wandering. Thirdly, in consequence of the tense political situation, the Council of News and even the institutions which held the "金韻獎" would limit the categories of songs. Here we can see that the government, Council of News, and even the institutions, which held the contest, belong to the I.S.A (Ideology State Apparatus). They created the ideology that people should avoid discussing the political issues and sang songs related to love, wandering, or some other topics. The ideology has a material existence and has the support and help from the state apparatus.
The non-political element results from the influence of Western songs. People might have the dream or aspiration for those developed countries. It might also result in the popularity of wandering songs. Because of the ideologies that exist in the society, the wandering song became one of the popularities during 1977~1983. From the example, we can see that we are always inside the ideology and always determined by ideology.