Regarding economy, Marxism emphasizes on the conflict among different working classes. Marx, himself, opposes capitalism. Applying capitalism would make the rich richer and the poor poorer. The poor may follow the means of production made by the rich, who may impose the poor, the majority, any idea to manipulate them. To use this idea to examine literary works, we can find out the relation between literature and the society. In a text, a Marxist reader might look for the power-relation, conflicts or forces between different groups of people or class.
Take Ah Cho in Chinago as an example. In the very beginning, his inability of speaking French becomes the hindrance for him to seize any power. His knowledge of Chinese culture, language, and traditions does not make him a free and complete person. He has to do the labors and be a slave, a coolie. He has to live in a dream that can never come true. All his life and his suffering have come from a more powerful economic force. Not him or any individual from the same village can stop this force. Ah Cho's quietness serves as a represent of the collective characteristic of all the five hundred coolies. This group of people does not have any power at all, but quietly accepts the laws, suppression, and accusation from other countries.
Cruchot, the French gendarme, does not have any right or courage to assert his opinions. "He knew discipline and fear of authority." Karl Schemmer earns salary from the company and takes orders from his supervisor. These two people serve for the same authority, the western country that has greater economic power than the east. With such force at hand, they make every coolies obey. Chinese people can only make little money by making themselves as commodities. Cruchot and Schemmer are part of this production. They are also a part of the device. The way they discipline the labors comes from the company policy, the greater power among the countries.
In the story, the winner comes to the strong economic power that already spreads out the idea of the fittest survive. The death of Ah Cho also proves this idea. He has no power to fight back. The country with the powerful economy wins. All individual under this idea can only comply; there is no way to escape from a powerful social, or worldly, thinking, enforced by the strongest economy invasion.