The subjectivity in Lacanˇ¦s and Freudˇ¦s idea
Freud thinks that our body bears the traces of its earliest stages when body and psyche are neither distinguishes from each other nor differentiates from the mother-child unit. It is based not only on instinctual satisfactions like feeding and excreting but also on interaction with the mother. Gradually these ˇ§innerˇ¨ sensations are joined by identifications with beloved ˇ§outerˇ¨ objects, and, with every new stimulus, the infant learns to integrate the two and to separate something marked ˇ§insideˇ¨ from the rest. The developing ego takes final form as it confronts and integrates social demands. The Freudian ego is thus anchored in both instinctual id and cultural superego, and the Freudian subject is shaped by both material and social pressures.
Lacan, on the other hand, describes a process of mirroring that creates the sense of self; and he places the changes of the intersubjective ˇ§demandˇ¨ for recognition (rather than the biological ˇ§needˇ¨ for food) at the center of the infantˇ¦s experience. He focuses on the narcissistic wound ˇV the childˇ¦s inevitable loss when emerging from the narcissistic fantasy of union with a totally devoted preoedipal mother ˇV though Lacan describes this loss to oedipal castration. More important, Lacan thinks there is no self but only the false self the ego. The prototype of the ego is the infantˇ¦s identification with the image in the mirror at a time when ˇ§heˇ¨ or ˇ§sheˇ¨ is nothing more than an incoherent, disunified mass of sensations. After the painful oedipal confrontation with the father, whom the infant takes as the original other, the subject becomes a subject only after recognizing the other as other.