Part One: Overview the issue
|Krashen's View (Krashen, 1982)||Krashen's View (Krashen, 1982)|
|Optimal input is comprehensible|| Multimedia support
|Optimal input is interesting/relevant|| Cultural context
|Optimal input is in sufficient quantity|| Produce repetitions
Provide error correction
|Optimal input provides low affective filter|| Non-threatening environment
Simulate interpersonal communication without
suffering real-life mistakes
A. Limited oral applications (speech recognition)
B. Poor design of many programs
C. Evaluating creating writing
D. Non-communicative orientation
Part Two: --- Computer Uses in Instruction
How can I use CALL in my teaching? How do I evaluate my software?
I. Robert Taylor's Scheme of Computer Uses in Instruction (Merrill, 1996)
A. The computer as Tool: The computer is used
as an aid or facilitator in accomplishing some task.
1. Ways of using tools:
a. Tools can be used by the teacher to perform common workplace tasks such as preparation
¡@¡@¡@ of instructional materials, record keeping, management of the instructional process.
b. Tools can be used by the student in much the same fashion.
c. Tools can be the objects of instruction.
2. Common instructional tool categories
a. Word processing
b. Database management
c. Numerical calculation and analysis
f. Production support tools
g. Integrated package
B. The Computer as Tutor: The computer provides
instruction to the user.
1. Common categories of tutor mode use
a. Drill and practice
d. Instructional games
e. Problem-solving software
C. The Computer as Tutee: The computer adopts
the role of "student" while the user becomes the "teacher."
1. Why do it?
2. Computer languages: What are they?
3. Types of languages:
a. General programming languages: Require the programmer to enter lines of computer code to construct the course.
b. Authoring languages
Part Three: Using the Internet to teach languages (Sperling, 1997)
I. Internet basics
A. Brief history of the Internet: http://www.ocean.ic.net/ftp/doc/nethist.html
B. Getting connected:
1. A computer
2. A modem
C. Web browsers
1. Netscape Navigator http://home.netscape.com/
2. Microsoft Explorer http://microsoft.com/
D. Reasons for using the internet in language teaching http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Articles/Lin-OnlineGrammar.html
1. The access to a wide range of resources
2. The ease and speed of getting information to large number of students
3. The attractive layout and graphics
4. The links to numerous other sites
5. The students getting feedback without teachers having to mark their work
II. Internet services for language teaching
A. E-mail ---
You can instantly send and receive electronic mail from around the world.
California E-mail Project Home Page http://www.otan.dni.us/webfarm/emailproject/email.html
E-Mail Classroom Exchange http://www.iglou.com/xchange/ece/index.html
E-Mail Key Pal Connection http://www.comenius.com/keypal.index.html
ESL Student E-mail Connection for Students http://www.pacificnet.net/~sperling/student.html
B. Mailing lists --- Through e-mail, you can participate in discussions on thousands of topics
C. USENET news --- You can read and post messages on almost every imaginable topic.
D. Chat --- You can participate in live conversations, using text, audio, and even video.
E. MOOs --- MUD Object Oriented, where several people can interact with one another simultaneously.
III. ESL Resources on the Internet: See
IV. Evaluating web resources: See Appendix III [page 9,10].