Computer-Assisted Language Learning

Part One: Overview the issue

    What is CALL?
  1.  Definition: An instructional application, which employs computer technology to deliver instructional materials for the teaching and learning of a foreign or second language.
  2.  Advantages of multimedia in foreign/second language learning
Krashen's View (Krashen, 1982) Krashen's View (Krashen, 1982)
Optimal input is comprehensible Multimedia support  
Learner control  
Immediate feedback
Optimal input is interesting/relevant Cultural context  
Group interactions
Optimal input is in sufficient quantity Produce repetitions  
Provide error correction
Optimal input provides low affective filter Non-threatening environment  
Simulate interpersonal communication without
     suffering real-life mistakes
  1. Limitations of CALL

     A. Limited oral applications (speech recognition)
     B. Poor design of many programs
     C. Evaluating creating writing
     D. Non-communicative orientation

Part Two: --- Computer Uses in Instruction

How can I use CALL in my teaching? How do I evaluate my software?

I. Robert Taylor's Scheme of Computer Uses in Instruction (Merrill, 1996)

     A. The computer as Tool: The computer is used as an aid or facilitator in accomplishing some task.
          1. Ways of using tools:
               a. Tools can be used by the teacher to perform common workplace tasks such as preparation
               ¡@¡@¡@ of instructional materials, record keeping, management of the instructional process.
               b. Tools can be used by the student in much the same fashion.
               c. Tools can be the objects of instruction.
          2. Common instructional tool categories
               a. Word processing
               b. Database management
               c. Numerical calculation and analysis
               d. Graphics
               e. Communications
               f. Production support tools
               g. Integrated package

     B. The Computer as Tutor: The computer provides instruction to the user.
          1. Common categories of tutor mode use
               a. Drill and practice
               b. Tutorials
               c. Simulations
               d. Instructional games
               e. Problem-solving software

     C. The Computer as Tutee: The computer adopts the role of "student" while the user becomes the "teacher."
          1. Why do it?
          2. Computer languages: What are they?
          3. Types of languages:
               a. General programming languages: Require the programmer to enter lines of computer code to construct the course.
               b. Authoring languages

Part Three: Using the Internet to teach languages (Sperling, 1997)

I. Internet basics

     A. Brief history of the Internet: http://www.ocean.ic.net/ftp/doc/nethist.html
     B. Getting connected:
          1. A computer
          2. A modem
     C. Web browsers
          1. Netscape Navigator http://home.netscape.com/
          2. Microsoft Explorer http://microsoft.com/
     D. Reasons for using the internet in language teaching  http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Articles/Lin-OnlineGrammar.html
          1. The access to a wide range of resources
          2. The ease and speed of getting information to large number of students
          3. The attractive layout and graphics
          4. The links to numerous other sites
          5. The students getting feedback without teachers having to mark their work

II. Internet services for language teaching

     A. E-mail --- You can instantly send and receive electronic mail from around the world. (Warschauer, 1995)
              California E-mail Project Home Page http://www.otan.dni.us/webfarm/emailproject/email.html
              E-Mail Classroom Exchange http://www.iglou.com/xchange/ece/index.html
              E-Mail Key Pal Connection http://www.comenius.com/keypal.index.html
              ESL Student E-mail Connection for Students http://www.pacificnet.net/~sperling/student.html
     B. Mailing lists --- Through e-mail, you can participate in discussions on thousands of topics
     C. USENET news --- You can read and post messages on almost every imaginable topic.
     D. Chat --- You can participate in live conversations, using text, audio, and even video.
     E. MOOs --- MUD Object Oriented, where several people can interact with one another simultaneously.

III. ESL Resources on the Internet: See


IV. Evaluating web resources: See Appendix III [page 9,10].
¡@  http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/instruct/web/critical.htm

  1. Krashen, S. (1982).¡@ Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.¡@ New York, NY: Pergamon.
  2. Merrill, P. F. (1996).¡@ Computers in Education.¡@ Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  3. Sperling, D. (1997).¡@ Dave Sperling¡¦s Internet Guide.¡@ London: Prentice Hall Regents.
  4. Warschauer, M. (1995). E-mail for English Teaching: Bringing the Internet and Computer Learning Networks into the Language Classroom. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.