[Audio-lingual] [Communicative Approach ] [ Computer-aided Instruction ] [ Cooperative Learning ] [Direct Method ] [Grammar-translation ] [ The Silent Way ] [Suggestopedia ] [ Total PhysicalResponse] [Multiple Approaches] [Others]


Chastain, K.  1969.  "The audio-lingual habit theory versus the cognitive code-learning theory: some theoretical 
     considerations."  International Review of Applied Linguistics 7: 79-106.
Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford University 

Rivers, W.  1968.  Teaching Foreign Language Skills.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S.  1986.  “The Audiolingual Method.”  In Approaches and Methods in Language 
     Teaching: A Description and
Analysis (Chap. 4).  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 44-63.

Communicative Approach
Anderson, J.  1993.  "Is A Communicative Approach Practical For Teaching English in  China? Pros and 
     Cons."  System 21/4: 471-480.
Brumfit, C. J.  1984.  Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching: The Roles of Fluency  and 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brumfit, C. J.& Johnson, K. (Eds.)  1979.  The Communicative Approach to Language  Teaching.   
     Oxford: Oxford University Press.  pp. 243.

Brumfit, C.  1989.  Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching: The Role of Fluency and Accuracy.  
Cambridge University Press.  pp. 108.

Canale, M. & M. Swain.  1980.  "Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second  Language 
     Teaching and Testing."  Applied Linguistics 1: 1-47.

Celce-Murcia, M., Z. Dornyei & S. Thurrell.  1997.  "Direct Approaches in L2  Instruction: A Turning Point 
     in Communicative Language Teaching?"  TESOL Quarterly 31/1: 141-152.

Ellis, G.  "How Culturally Appropriate Is the Communicative Approach?"  ELT Journal 50/3: 213-218.
Freudenstein, R.  1992.  "Communicative peace."  English Today 31: 3-8.
Frohlich, M., N. Spada & P. Alien.  1985.  "Differences in the communicative  orientation of L2 classrooms." 
     TESOL Quarterly
19: 27-56.

Gatbonton, E. & N. Segalowitz.  1988.  "Creative automatization: principles for promoting  fluency within a 
     communicative framework."  TESOL Quarterly 22/3: 473-492.

Harmer, J.  1982.  "What is communicative?"   ELT Journal 36/3: 164-168.

Hui, L.  1997.  "New Bottles, Old Wines: Communicative Language Teaching in China."  English Teaching 
(Oct.): 38-41.

Johnson, K. &  K. Morrow.  1981.  Communication in the Classroom.  Lonman.

Johnson, K.  1982.  Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology.  Oxford: Pergamon.

Kamaravadivelu, B.  1993.  "Maximizing Learner Potential in the Communicative Classroom."  ELT Journal  
     47/1: 12-21.
Karavas-Doukas, E.  1996.  "Using Attitude Scales to Investigate Teachers' Attitudes to  the Communicative 
     Approach."  ELT Journal 50/3: 187-198.
Karen E. J.  1995.  Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms.  Cambridge 
     University Press.
Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford University 

Lee. J. F. & B. Vanpatten.  1995.  Making Communicative Language Teaching Teaching Happen.  McGraw-Hill, Inc.  pp.291.

Li, D.  1998.  "It's always more difficult than you plan and imagine.": Teachers' perceived difficulties in  
     introducing the communicative approach in South Korea."  TESOL Quarterly 32
/4: 677-703.

Li, X.  1984.  I"n Defense of the Communicative Approach."  ELT Journal 38/1: 2-13.

Littlewood, W.  1983.  Communicative language teaching: An introduction (4th ed.).  Cambridge: Cambridge 
     University Press.

Long, M. H. & G. Crookes.  1992.  "Three approaches to task-based syllabus design."  TESOL Quarterly 
     26/1: 27-56.
MUNBY, J.  1978.  Communicative Syllabus Design.  Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D.  1987.  “Communicative language teaching: Making it work.” ELT Journal 41/2: 136-145.

Nunan, D.  1989.  Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University 

Penner, J.  1995.  "Change and Conflict: Introduction of the Communicative Approach in  China."  TESL 
     Canada Journal
12/2: 1-17.

Prabhu, N. S.  1987.  Second Language Pedagogy: A Perspective.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Savignon, S.  1991.   "Communicative Language Teaching: State of the art."  TESOL Quarterly 25: 261-

Scarcella, R. C. & R. L. Oxford.  1992.  The Tapestry of  Language Learning: The Individual in  the  
     Communicative Classroom.  Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Swan, M.  1985.  "A critical look at the Communicative Approach (1)."  ELT Journal 39/1: 2-12.
Swan, M.  1985.  "A critical look at the Communicative Approach (2)."  ELT Journal 39/2: 76-87.
Taylor, B. P.  1983.   "Teaching ESL: Incorporating a communicative, student-centered  component."  
     TESOL Quarterly
17: 69-88.
Tarone, B. P.  1980.  "Review of Teaching Language As Communication by H. G."  Widdowson.TESOL 
14/4: 522-524.
Widdowson, H. G. 1978.  Teaching Language as Communication.  Oxford University Press.
White, C. J.  1991.  "Negotiating Communicative Language Learning in a Traditional Setting."  English 
     Language Teaching Journal
43/3: 213-220.


Computer-aided Instruction
Berge, Z. & M. Collin.  1995.  "Computer-mediated communication and the online classroom: Overview and 
     perspectives."  Computer-mediated Communication Magazine 2/2: 6.
Bolt, P. & M. Yazdani.  1998.  "The Evolution of A Grammar-checking Program: Linger To ISCA."  
     Computer Assisted Language Learning
11/1: 55-112.
Carrier, M.  1997.  "ELT Online: the Rise of the Internet."  ELT Journal 51/3 (July).
Chapelle, C. A.  1999.  "Technology and language teaching for the 21th Century."  The Proceedings of the 
     English International Symposium on English Teaching.
  Taipei: The
  Crane Publishing.
Crook, C.  1997.  "Children as computer users: The case of collaborative learning."  Computers        
30: 237-247.
Crystal, D.  1997.  "The Language that Took Over the World."  The Guardian  (February): 22.

Eastment, D.  1998.  "Quality Sites on the World Wide Web. Where Are the Good Web  Pages?"  Modern 
     English Teacher
7/2: 68-78.

Ebbelink, I.  1999.  What is computer-mediated communication?  [On-line]  Available: http:

Fortescue, S. & C. Jones.  1987.  Using Computers in the Language Classroom.  London: Longman.
Hoban, C. F. & R. W. Wagner.  2000.  American online: Audiovisual education. [On-line] 
Jarvis, H.  1997.  "Using the World Wide Web for An "Authentic Learning Experience."  Modern English 
6/4: 45-49.
Kenning, M. J. & M.-M. Kenning.  1983.  An Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Teaching.  
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leech, G. & C. Candlin.  1986.  Computers in English Language Teaching and Research.  London: 
Liaw, M.  1998.  "Using Electronic Mail For English As A Foreign Language (EFL)  Instruction."  System 26/
     3: 335-351.

Lookatch, R. P.  2000.  "American online: Education."  [On-line]  Available:

Motteram, G.  1996.  "The Internet and ELT."  IATEFL Newsletter.  Issue 131.

Motteram, G.  1996.  "Making Up Your Web Page."  IATEFL Newsletter.  Issue 133.

Robb, T. N.  1996.  "E-mail keypals for language fluency."  Foreign Language Notes 38/3: 8-11.

Ruhe, V.  1998.  "E-mail Exchanges: Teaching Language, Culture, and Technology for the 21st Century."  
     TESL Canada Journal
16/1: 89-95.

Schulze, M.  1998.  "Checking Grammar-teaching Grammar."  Computer Assisted Language  Learning 11/2: 

Sperling, D.  1997.  The Internet Guide for English Language Teachers.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice 
     Hall Regents.
Warschauer, M.  1995.  E-mail for English Teaching.  Alexandria, VA:TESOL.
Warschauer, M.  1995.  E-mail for English Teaching: Bringing the Internet and computer learning 
     networks into the language classroom. 
New york: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other 
Warschauer, M. &  D.  Healey.  1998.  "Computer and language learning: An overview."  Language 
31: 57-71.
Wyatt, D. H.  1983.  "Computer-assisted language instruction: Present state and future  prospects.  System 11
     /1: 3-11.

Cooperative Learning

Bejarano, Y.  1987.  "A Cooperative Small-group Methodology in the Language Classroom."  TESOL 
27: 483-504.

Bell, D.  1997.  "Dance and the power of kinesthetic learning."  Paper at TESOL Conference, March 
     Orlando, USA.
Dornyei, Z. & A. Malderez.  1997.  "Group dynamics and foreign language teaching."  System 25: 65-81.
Elbow, P.  Sharing and Responding.  McGraw-Hill.
Forsyth, D. R.  1990.  Group dynamics (2nd ed.).  Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing  Company.

Freeman, D.  1992.  "Collaboration: Constructing Shared Understandings in a Second Language  
     Classroom.  " In D. Nunan (Ed.), Collaborating Learning and Teaching: 56-80.  Cambridge:
     Cambridge University Press.

George, D.  1984.  "Working with peer groups in the composition classroom."  College  Composition and 
35/3: 320-326.
Grimm, N.  1986.  "Improving students' responses to their peer's essays."  College Composition  and 
37/1: 91-94.
Hickey, T. J. & A. E. DeCoste.  "Building Bridges: Connecting High School and  Elementary School 
     Through Short Story Writing."  English Journal (September): 75-78.
High, J.  1993.   Second Language Learning through Cooperative Learning.  San Juan Capistrano: 
     Kagan Cooperative Learning.
Jacobs, E., Rottenberg, L., Patrick, S., & E. Wheeler.  1996.  "Cooperative Learning: Context  and 
     Opportunities for Acquiring Academic English."  TESOL Quarterly 30: 253-280.
Jacobs, G. M. & S. J. Hall.  1994.  "Implementing cooperative learning."  English Teaching  Forum 32: 2-
     5, 13.
Jacobs, G. 1998.  "Cooperative learning or Just grouping students: The difference makes  a difference' in 
     Renandya, W and G. Jacobs (eds.)."   Learners and Language Learning.
  Singapore: SEAMEO 
     Regional Language Center.

Johnson, R. T., D. W. Johnson & E. J. Holubec (Eds.).  1987.  Structuring Cooperative Learning: Lesson 
     Plans for Teachers
.  MN: Interaction Book Company.  pp. 339.

Johnson, D. W. & R. T. Johnson.  1987.  Learning together and alone.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice 
     Hall.  pp. 193.

------.  1987.  Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills.  N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.  pp. 493.

Johnson, D. W., Roger, T. J. & E. J. Holubec. 1988.  Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: 
     Interaction Books.
Kagan, S.  1985-1992. Cooperative learning resources for teachers.  San Juan Capistrano, CA: 
     Resources for Teachers.
Kagan, S.  1989.  Cooperative learning: Resources for teachers.  San Juan Capistrano: Resources  for 
Kessler, C.  1992.  Cooperative Language Learning.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents.
Kinsella, K.  1996.  "Designing Group Work That Supports and Enhances Diverse Classroom  Work 
     Style."  TESOL Journal 6: 24-30.
Lee, I.   1998.  "Peer Reviews in A Honk Kong Tertiary Classroom."  TESL Canada Journal 15/1: 58-69.
Liang, X., B. A. Mohan & M. Early.  1998.  "Issues of Cooperative  Learning in ESL Classes: A Literature 
     Review."  TESL Canada Journal 15/2: 13-23.
Long, M. H. & P. A. Porter.  1985.  "Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language  learning."  
     TESOL Quarterly
19: 207-228.
Lou, Y., P.C. Abrami, J. C. Spence, C. Poulsen, B. Chambers & S. d'Apollonia.  1996.  "Within-class 
     grouping: A meta-analysis."  Review of Educational Research 66: 423-458.
McBride Jr., R.  1998.  "Down the Street and Across the Grades: A High School/ Elementary School 
     Partnership."  English Journal (September): 68-74.
Nunan, D. (Ed.)  1992.  Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching.  Cambridge: Cambridge 
     University Press.
Pica, T., & C. Doughty.  1985.  "The role of group work in classroom second language  acquisition."  
     Studies In Second Language Acquisition
7: 233-248.
Quirke, P.  1997.  "Network: Twenty-five Steps to Groupwork With Any Class."  Modern English 
6/2: 55-57.
Sharan, S.  1980.  "Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on  achievement, 
     attitudes, and ethnic relations."  Review of Educational Research 50: 241-271.
Sharan, S (Ed.).  1990.  Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research.  pp. 314.
Sharan, Y. & S. Sharan.  1992.   Expanding Cooperative Learning through Group Investigation.  New 
     York: Teachers College Press.
Shi, L.  1998.  "Negotiated Interaction In Teacher-led Versus Peer Group Adult ESL  Discussion."  TESL 
     Canada Journal
16/1: 54-74.
Slavin, R. E.  1980.  " Cooperative learning."  Review of Educational Research 50: 315-342.
Slavin, R. 1995.  Cooperative Learning (2nd edn.).  Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Thomas, C. K.  1998.  "Junior Teacher Internship: Promoting Co-operative  interaction and Learner 
     Autonomy in Foreign Language Classrooms."  Foreign Language
  Annals 31/4: 569-583.

Vermette, P. J.  1998.  Making Cooperative Learning Work: Student Teams in K-12 Classrooms.  NJ:  
 Prentice-Hall, Inc.  pp. 240.

Webb, N. M. (1982).  " Student interaction and learning in small groups."  Review of Educational  
     Research 52/
3: 421-445.
1990.  Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
1994.  "Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups."  Review of  Educational 
64: 1-35.
1994.  Learning Together and alone: Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning. 
     Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
1994.  Cooperative Learning.  San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning.


Direct Method 
Celce-Murcia, M., Z. Dornyei & S. Thurrell.  1997.  "Direct Approaches in L2  Instruction: A Turning 
     Point in Communicative Language Teaching?"  TESOL Quarterly 31/1: 141-152.

Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford 
     University Press.


Celice-Murcia, M.  1991.  "Grammar Pedagogy in Second and Foreign Language Teaching."  TESOL 
25/3: 459-478.  
Fotos, S.  1998.  "Shifting the Focus From Forms to Forms in the EFL Classroom."  ELT  Journal 52/4: 
Howatt, A. P. R. 1984.  A History of English Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford      
      University Press.

Stern, H. H. 1983.  Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silent Way
Allard, F., R. Young.  1990.  "The Silent Way."  The Language Teacher 14/6: 27-29.
Allard, F.  2000/10.  “ESL (English as a Second Language) the Silent Way (30 hours, May 2-5, 1992, Osaka).”
Bartoli, C.  1981.   "Teaching the Silent Way."  Practical English Teaching 2/1: 29-30.

Benstein, P.  2000/10.  “Explaining concepts behind The Silent Way.”   

Blair, R. (ed.).  1982.  Innovative Approaches to Language Teaching.  Rowley,  MA: Newbury House.

Celce-Murcia, M. 1991.  "Language teaching approaches: An overview' in Celce-Murcla,  M. (ed.)."  
     Teaching English as Second or Foreign Language
(2nd edn.).  Boston,
  MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Gattegno, C.  1972.  Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way.  New York: 
     Educational Solutions.

Gattegno, S.  2000/10.  “The silent way: An approach that humanizes teaching.”   
Hanson, G, R. Young, J. Olesen & D. L'He.  2000/10.  “What does ‘working on the  student’ mean?  What four 
     Silent Way teachers say to their students?”

Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S.  1986.  “The Silent Way.”  In Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A 
     Description and Analysis (Chap. 7)
.  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 99-112.
Stevick, E. W.  1998.  "The Silent Way: Basic Ideas"& "The Silent Way in Practice."  Chapters 8 & 9 in Working 
     with Teaching Methods: What’s at Stake?
  Heinle & Heinle Dublishers. 
Young, R.  2000/10.  “Caleb Gattengno—Silent Way: Some of the reasons why we do what we do.” 

Bancroft, W. J.  1978.  "The Lozanov method and its American Adaptions."  Modern Language Journal 64/4: 167-175.

Brandle, M. & E. Niedermuller.  1994.  "Intensive Language Courses for Adults: The Suggestopedic 
     Method."  Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education 34/2: 142-148.

Bushman, R., & H. Mafsen.  1976.  "A description and evaluation of Suggestopedia—a new teaching 
     methodology."  In J. Fanselow & R. Crymes (Eds.), On TESOL '76: 29-38
.  Washington, DC: TESOL.
Celce-Murcia, M. 1991. "Language teaching approaches: An overview' in  Celce-Murcla, M. (ed.).  
     Teaching English as Second or Foreign Language
(2nd edn.).
  Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Dhority, L. 1991.  The ACT Approach: The Use of Suggestion for Integrative Learning.  Yverdon,    
     Switzerland: Gordon and Breach.
Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford 
     University Press.
Lozanov, G. & E. Gateva. 1988.  The Foreign Language Teacher's Suggestopedic  Manual. New York:
     Gordon and Breach.
Lozanov, G.  1978.  Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedy.  Gordon and Breach.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S.  1986.  “Suggestopedia.”  In Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A 
     Description and Analysis (Chap. 10).  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 142-153.
Schiffler, L. 1992.  Suggestopedic Methods and Applications.  (English edition) Yverdon, Switzerland: 
     Gordon and Breach.
Scovel, T.  1979.  Review of Georgi Lozanov, "Suggestology and outlines of suggestopedy."  TESOL 
13/2: 255-266.
Stevick, E. W. 1998.  "A Third Way: Suggestopedia."  Chapter10 in  Working with Teaching Methods: What's 
     at Stake?
Heinle & Heinle Dublishers.

Total Physical Response
Asher, J. J.  1966.  "The learning strategy of the total physical response: A review."  Modern Language 
50: 79-84.
Asher, J. J.  1969.  "The total physical response approach to second language learning."  
 Language Journal 53: 3-17.
Asher, J.  1996.  Learning another Language through Actions: The Complete Teacher's  Guidebook.  
     (5th edn.) Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
Barnett, M. A.  1983.  "Replacing teacher talk with gestures: Nonverbal communication in the foreign 
     language classroom."  Foreign Language Annals 16: 173-176.
Birdwhistell, R. L.  1970.  Kinesics and context: Essays on body-motion communication.  Philadelphia: 
     University of Pennsylvania Press.
Garcia, R. 1996.  Instructor's Notebook: How to Apply TPR for Best Results. (4th edn.)  Los Gatos, 
     CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
Green, G. R.  1971.  "Kinesics in the foreign language classroom.  Foreign Language Annals 5: 62-68.

Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford 
     University Press.

Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S.  1986.  “Total Physical Response.”  In Approaches and Methods in Language 
     Teaching: A Description and Analysis (Chap.6).  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 87-98.
Seely, C.  1998.  TPR is more than Commands at all Levels.  Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks  Productions.

Multiple Approaches 
Curtain, H.  1991.  "Methods in Elementary School Foreign Language Teaching."  Foreign Language 
24/4: 328-329.
Hesse, M. G. (Ed.).  1975.  Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages. Amsterdam: North  Holland; 
     New York: American Elsevier.
Johnson, K. & K. E. Morrow.  1979.  Approaches.  Cambridge University Press.
Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000.  Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford  
     University Press.

Nattinger, J. R. & J. S. DeCarrico.  1997.  Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching.  Oxford University Press.  
pp. 218.

Nunan, D.  1995.  Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for teachers.  Hemel Hempstead: 
     Prentice Hall International.
Oller, J. W., Jr. & P. Richard-Amato (Eds.).  1983.  Methods That Work.  Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Richards, J. C. & T. S. Rodgers.  1986.  Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A 
     Description and Analysis
.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stevick, E. W.  1980.  Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways.  Rowley, MA: Newbury House.


Bartolome, L. I.  1994.  "Beyond the Methods Fetish: Toward a Humanizing Pedagogy.  Harvard 
     Educational Review
64: 173-194.
Beed, P., E. Hawkins & C. Roller.  1991.  "Moving Learners toward independence: The power of scaffold 
     instruction."  The Reading Teacher 44: 648-655.
Brown, H. D.  1994.  Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy.  3rd. 
     ed Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice Hall Regents
Campbell, R. N., Gray, T., Rhodes, N., & M.  Snow.  1985. "Foreign language learning in the elementary 
     schools: A comparison of three language programs."  Modern Language Journal 69/1: 44-54.
Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. & D. E. Eskey (Eds.).   1988.  Inteeractive approaches to second language 
  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, A. & S. Weaver.  1998.  "Strategies?based instruction for second language  learners' in Renanda, 
     W and G. Jacobs (eds.).  Learners and Language Learning.
  Singapore: SEAMEO Regional 
     Language Centre.
Finocchiaro, M., & C. Brumfit.  1983.  The functional-notional approach: From theory to practice.  
     New York: Oxford University Press.

------.  1987.  The Functional-Notional Approach: From From Theory to Practice (4th impression).  Oxford University Press.  pp. 235.

Genesee, F.,  1992.  "Second/Foreign language immersion and at-risk English-speaking children."  Foreign 
     Language Annals
25/3: 199-213.
Ghosen, I. K.  1997.  "ESL With Children's Literature: The Way Whole Language Worked in One 
     Kindergarten Class."  English Teaching Forum (July): 15-19.
Hornby, P. A.  1980.  "Achieving second language fluency through immersion education."  Foreign 
     Language Annals
13: 107-113.
Hymes, D. 1974.  Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach.  Philadelphia: 
     University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jourdain, S.  1998.  " Building Connections to Culture: A Student-centered Approach."  Foreign 
     Language Annals
31/3: 439-450.
Krashen, S. D., & T. D. Terrell.  1983.  The Natural Approach.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
------.  1983.  The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom.  Oxford: Pergamon 
Larsen-Freeman, D.  2000.  Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching.  Oxford University Press. 

Maxim, H. H.  1998.  "Authorizing The Foreign Language Student."  Foreign Language Annals 31/3: 407-

Nelson, R. J.  1972.  "Culture and culture: An integrsted, multidisciplinary approach to foreign language 
     requirements."  Modern Language Journal 56: 210-217.
Nunan, D.  1988.  The Learner-Centered Curriculum.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D.  1991.  “Communicative Tasks and Language Curriculum.”  TESOL Quarterly 25/2: 279-295.  
Ostyn, P., & P. Godin.  1985.  Ralex: An alternative approach to language teaching.  Modern Language 
69: 346-354.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S.  1986.  Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and 
.  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 171.

Richards, J. C. & T. S. Rogers.  1988 (4th printing).  Approaches and Methods In Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis.  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 171.

Richards, J. C. & C. Lockhart.  1994.  Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms.  
     Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Riggy, P.  1991.  “Whole language in TESOL.”  TESOL Quarterly 25/31: 521-542
Sternfeld, S.  1988.  "The applicability of the immersion approach to beginning college foreign language 
     instruction."  Foreign Language Annals 21: 221-226.

Stevick, E. W.  1998.  Working with Teaching Methods: What’s at Stake?  Heinle & Heinle Dublishers.  pp. 

------.  1998.  "Counseling-Learning: Basic Ideas", "Other Applications of Counseling -Learning in Language 
     Teaching", & "Counseling-Learning and What's at Stake."  Chapters 5, 6 & 7 in Working with Teaching 
     Methods: What's at Stake?
  Heinle & Heinle Dublishers.
Terrell, T. D. 1977.  " A natural approach to the acquisition and learning of language."  Modern Language 
61: 325-336.
------.  1982.  " The natural approach to language teaching: an update."  Modern Language Journal  66/2: 
Terrell, T.  1986.  "Acquisition in the natural approach: The binding/access framework."  Modern Language
70: 213-227.

Tudor, I.  1997.   Learner-Centredness as Language Education.  Cambridge: Cambridge University 

1994.  Teaching by principles: Interactive Language Teaching Methodology.  New York: Prentice 
     Hall Regents.




[Listening] [ Speaking ] [ Reading ] [ Writing ] [ Grammar ] [ Vocabulary] [Assessment] [Feedback] [Overall] [Others]

Anderson, A. & T. Lynch.  1988.  Listening.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Berne, J. E.  1998. "Examining The Relationship Between L2 Listening Research, Pedagogical Theory, and 
     Practice."  Foreign Language Annals 31/2: 169-190.
Blau, E.  1990.  " The Effect of Syntax, Speed and Pauses on Listening Comprehension."  TESOL Quarterly  
     2/44: 746-752.
Chein, C.  1998.  "The Strategy Use in Listening Comprehension For EFL Learners
     in Taiwan."  RELC JOurnal 29/1: 66-91.
Dunkel, P.  1986.  "Developing listening fluency in L2: Theoretical principles and pedagogical considerations. 
     "  Modern Language Journal 70: 99-106.
Field, J.  1997.  "Notes on Listening: Variability and Assimilation."  Modern English Teacher 6/1: 51-52.
------.  1997.  "Notes on Listening: Authenticity."  Modern English Teacher 6/3: 49-51.
Flowerdew, J. & S. Tauroza.  1995.  "The effect of discourse markers on second language lecture 
     comprehension."  Studies in Second Language Acquisition 17: 435-458.
Heike, A. E.  1981.  "Audio-lectal practice and fluency acquisition."  Foreign Language Annals 4/3: 189-
Katchen, J.  1995.  "Listening Journals: A way to Enhance Students' Listening Strategies."  Paper presented 
     at the 21th annual ROC TEFL Conference, at Tunghai University, Taiwan.

Mendelson, R.  1995.  A Guide for the Teaching of Second Language Listening.  Dominie P.

Mueller, G. A.  1980.  "Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment."  Modern 
     Language Journal
64: 335-340.

Numrich, C.  Face the Issue.  Pearson Education.

Porter, D., & J. Roberts.  1981.  " Authentic listening activities."  ELT Journal 36/l: 37-47.

Richards, J.  1983.  "Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure."  TESOL Quarterly 17/2: 

Rost, M.  1990.  Listening in Language Teaching.  London: Longman.
------.  Listening in Action: Activities for Developing Listening in Language Education.  Hemel 
     Hempstead: Prentice Hall International.
Stanley, J. A. 1978.  " Teaching listening comprehension."  TESOL Quarterly 12/3: 285-296.
Underwood, M.  1989.  Teaching Listening.  London: Longman.
Ur, P.  1984.  Teaching Listening Comprehension.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wallwork, A.  1997.  Discussions A-Z Advanced: A Resource Book of Speaking Activities.  Cambridge 
     University Press.  pp.112.
Weinstein, N.  Whaddaya Say.  Pearson Education.
White, G.  1998.  Listening.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Xiao, H.  1997.  "Tape Recorders, Role-Plays, and Turn-Taking in Large EFL Listening and Speaking 
     Classes."  English Teaching Forum (July): 33-35.

Bardovi-Harling, K., B. S. Harford, R. Mahan-Taylor, M. J. Morgan, & D. W. Reynolds.

     1991.  " Developing Pragmatic Awareness: Closing the Conversation."  ELT Journal 45: 4-15.
Brown, A.  Ed.  1991.  Teaching English Pronunciation: A Book of Readings.  London: Routledge.
------.  1992. Approaches to Pronunciation Teaching.  London: MacMillan.
Byrne, D.  1986. Teaching Oral English (2nd edn.).  London: Longman.
------.  1987. Techniques for Classroom Interaction.  London: Longman.
Cheng, F.  1998.  "The Teaching of Pronunciation to Chinese Students of English."  English Teaching 
(Jan/March): 37-39.

Dlugosz, D. W.  1997.  " Teaching Foreign Pronunciation Using Native Language Vocabulary."
     Modern English Teacher 6/1: 69.

Dornyei, Z. & S. Thurrell.  1992.  " Conversations and Dialogues in Action."  Hemel  Hempstead: Prentice Hall 
Ellis, N.  1996.  " Sequencing in SLA: Phonological Memory, Chunking, and Points of Order."
Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18: 91-126.
Fanselow, J.  1977.  "The treatment of error in oral work."  Foreign Language Annals 10/4.
Forseth, R.  1991. " Conversation Class: How to Keep Your Students Talking (in English)."  ELIC Teaching  
     8: 35-44.
Haozhang, X.  1997.  "Tape Recorders, Role-Plays, and Turn-Taking in Large EFL Listening and Speaking 
     Classes."  English Teaching Forum (July): 33-35.
Klippel, F.  1984.  Keep Talking: Communicative Fluency Activities for Language Teaching.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maurice, K.  1983.  " The fluency workshop."  TESOL Newsletter 17/ 4: 29.
Nation, P.  1989.  " Improving speaking fluency."  System 17/3: 377-387.
Okita, Y.  1999.  " Teaching Pronunciation."  English Teaching Forum (Jan./March): 17- 21.

Porter-Ladousse, G. & T. Noble.  1991.  "Oral Presentations: Group activity or one-man  show?"  English 
     Teaching Forum
29/2: 31-32.

Postovsky, V.  1974.  " Effects of delay in oral practice at the beginning of second language  learning."  
     Modern Language Journal
58: 5-6.

Rudder, M. E.  1999.  " Eliciting Student-Talk."  English Teaching Forum (April/ June): 24 -25.

Sun, Z.  1990.  " Using 'Case Studies' in Oral-English Classes."  English Teaching Forum 28
     /4: 27.
Taylor, B. P. & N. Wolfson.  1978.  "Breaking Down the Free Conversation Myth."
     TESOL Quarterly 12/1: 31-39.
Tench. P.  1981.  Pronunciation Skills.  Bookman Books, LTD.

Tool, D.  1992.  " Teaching Large Conversation Classes Without Media Aids."  English Teaching
     Forum 30/2: 32-33.

Ur, P.  1981.  Discussions that work.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
------.  1984. "Getting younger learners to talk 1, 2, 3."  Practical English Teaching.  4/4: 23-4; 5/1: 16-
     18; 5/2: 15-16.
Wallwork, A.  1997.  Discussions A-Z Advanced: A Resource Book of Speaking Activities.  Cambridge 
     University Press.  pp.112.
Wang, R.  1990.  " Focusing On Oral Communication Competence."  English Teaching Forum
28/1: 36-38.
Wang, Y.  1991.  " Teaching Oral English: Problems and Solutions."  ELIC Teaching 8: 31-34.
Wong,R.  1993.  " Pronunciation Myths and Facts."  English Teaching Forum 31/4: 45-46.
Yule, G., P. Hoffman & J. Damico.  1987.  " Paying Attention to Pronunciation: The Role
     of Self-monitoring in Perception."  TESOL Quarterly 21/4: 765-768.

Aebersold, J. & M. Field.  1997.  From Reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and Strategies
     For Second Language Classroom.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ahmad, K., Corbett, G., Rogers, M. &  R. Sussex.  1985.  Computers, language learning, and        
     language teaching.
  New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, N. J.  1994.  " Developing active readers: a pedagogical framework for the second  language 
     reading class."  System 22/2: 177-194.

------.  1999.  Exploring Second Language Reading: Issues and Strategies.  Heinle & Heinle Publishers.  
pp. 129.

McMahon, M. L.  1983.  " Development of reading-while-listening skills in the primary grades."
     RRQ 19/1: 38-52.
McMahon, M.  1999.  " Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class."  English
     Journal (March): 70-72.
Meyer, B. J. F., Brandt, D. M., & G. J. Bluth.  1980.  " Use of top-level structure in text: Key  for reading 
     comprehension of ninth-grade students."  Reading Research Quarterly 16: 72-103.

Meyer, R. M., & E. W. Tetrault.  1988.  " Getting started: Reading techniques that work from  the very first 
     day."  Foreign Language Annals 21: 423-431.

Nuttall, C.  1996.  Teaching Reading Skills in A Foreign Language.  Oxford: Heinemann.

Oakhill, J. & A. Garnham.  1988.  Becoming a skilled reader.  Oxford: Blackwell.

Rozakis, L. E.  1995.  21th Century Guide to Increasing Your Reading Speed.  Dell Pub. Co.

Samuels, S. j.  1979.  " The method of repeated readings."  The Reading Teacher 32: 403-408.

Stanovich, K. E.  1980.  " Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences  in the 
     development of reading fluency."  Reading Research Quarterly 16: 32-71.
Taglieber, L. K., Johnson, L. L., & D. B. Yarbrough.  1988.  " Effects of pre-reading activities  on EFL 
by Brazilian college students."  TESOL Quarterly 22/3: 455-472.
Williams, R.  1986.  "Top Ten" principles for teaching reading."  ELT Journal 40: 1, 42-45.

Wipf, J. A.  1984.  " Strategies for teaching second language comprehension."  Foreign Language  Annals 

Carrell, P. L., Devine, J. & D. E. Eskey (eds.).  1988.  " Interactive Approaches to Second  Language 
  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carrell, P. L., B. G. Pfaris, & J. C. Liberto.  1989.  " Metacognitive strategy training for ESL  reading."  
     TESOL Quarterly
23: 647-678.
Casanave, C. P.  1988.  " Comprehension monitoring in ESL reading: a neglected essential."  TESOL 
22/2: 283-302.

Davey, E.  1983.  " Think aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension."
     Journal of Reading 27: 44-47.

Davies, F.  1995.  Introducting Reading.  London: Penguin English.

Davis, C.  1995.  " Extensive reading: an expensive extravagance?"  ELTJ 49/4: 329-336.

Day, R. R., & J. Bamford.  1998.  Extensive reading in the second language classroom.   New York: 
     Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Leeuw, E.W.  1990.  Read better, read faster ( New ed.).  Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Dixon, C. N. & D. D. Nessel.  1992.  Meaning Making: Directed Reading & Thinking Activities.  
Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall Inc.  pp. 122.

Geva, E.  1983.  "Facilitating reading comprehension through flow charting."  Reading Research Quarterly 

Greenwood, J. 1988.  Class readers.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Grellet, F.  1981.  Developing Reading Skills.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hafiz, F. M. & I.  Tudor.  1990.  " Graded readers as an input medium in L2 learning."   System 18/ 1: 31-42.

Harkin, P.  1998.  Acts of Reading.  Prentice Hall.
Harri-Augstein, S., Smith, M. & L. Thomas.  1982.  Reading to learn.  London: Methuen.

Hedge, T.  1985.  Using Readers in Language Teaching.  Bookman Books, LTD.

Holme, R.  1991.  Talking Texts.  Longman Group UK Limited.  pp. 106.

Hyland, K.  1990.  "Purpose and strategy: teaching extensive reading skills."  English Teaching Forum 28/

Irwin, J. W. & I. Baker.  1989.  Promoting active reading comprehension strategies: A resource book 
     for teachers. 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Johnson, P.  1982.  " Effects on reading comprehension of building background knowledge."   TESOL 
16: 503-516.

Kern, R. G. 1989.  " Second language reading strategy instruction: its effects on  comprehension and word 
     inference ability."  Modern Language Journal 73/2: 135-149.

Laufer, B. & D. D. Sim.  1985.  " Taking the easy way out: Nonuse and misuse of contextual  clues in EFL 
     reading comprehension."  English Teaching Forum 23/2: 7-10; 22.

McMahon, M. L.  1983.  " Development of reading-while-listening skills in the primary grades."  PRQ 19/1: 

McMahon, M.  1999.  " Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class."  English
     Journal (March): 70-72.

Meyer, B. J. F., Brandt, D. M., & G. J. Bluth.  1980.  " Use of top-level structure in text: Key  for reading 
     comprehension of ninth-grade students."  Reading Research Quarterly 16: 72-103.

Meyer, R. M., & E. W. Tetrault.  1988.  " Getting started: Reading techniques that work from  the very first 
     day."  Foreign Language Annals 21: 423-431.
Nuttall, C.  1996.  Teaching Reading Skills in A Foreign Language.  Oxford: Heinemann.

Oakhill, J. & A. Garnham.  1988.  Becoming a skilled reader.  Oxford: Blackwell.

Rozakis, L. E.  1995.  21th Century Guide to Increasing Your Reading Speed.  Dell Pub. Co.

Samuels, S. j.  1979.  " The method of repeated readings."  The Reading Teacher 32: 403-408.

Silberstein, S.  1994.  Techniques and resources in teaching reading.  New York: Oxford University 

Stanovich, K. E.  1980.  " Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences  in the 
     development of reading fluency."  Reading Research Quarterly 16: 32-71.
Taglieber, L. K., Johnson, L. L., &  D. B. Yarbrough.  1988.  " Effects of pre-reading activities  on EFL 
by Brazilian college students."  TESOL Quarterly 22/3: 455-472.

Van Parreren, C. F. & M. C. Schouten-van Parreren.   1981.  " Contextual guessing:  a trainable reader 
     strategy."  System 9: 235-241.

Williams, R.  1986.  "Top Ten" principles for teaching reading."  ELT Journal 40/1: 42-45.
Wipf, J. A.  1984.  " Strategies for teaching second language comprehension."  Foreign Language  Annals 
Zamel, V.  1992.  Writing one's way into reading.  TESOL Quarterly 26/3: 463-485.

 Anderson, N. J.  1999.  Exploring Second Language Reading: Issues and Strategies.  Heinle & Heinle 
 Publishers.  pp. 129.

Applebee, a. N., & J. A. Langer.  1983.  " Instructional scaffolding: Reading and writing as  natural language 
     activities."  Language Arts 60: 168-175.

Boyle, O. & S. Peregoy.   1990.  " Literacy scaffolds: Strategies for first- and second-language  readers and 
     writers."  The Reading Teacher 44: 194-199.

Byrne, D.  1988.  Teaching Writing Skills (2ed edn.).  London: Longman.

Gaffield-Vile, N.  1998.  " Classroom Ideas: Creative Writing in the ELT Classroom."   Modern English 
7/3: 31-35.

Hedge, T.  1988. Writing.  London: Longman.

Hickey, Thomas J., & A. E. DeCoste.  " Building Bridges: Connecting High School and Elementary School   
     Through Short Story Writing.  English Journal (September): 75-78.

Kameen, P. T.   1978.  " A Mechanical, Meaningful and Communicative Framework for ESL  Sentence 
     Combining Exercises."  TESOL Quarterly 12/ 4.
Krashen, S. D.  1984.  Writing: Research, theory and applications.  New York: Prentice Hall.

Kumaravadivelu, B.  1995.  " The Author Responds."  TESOL Quarterly 29/1: 177-180.

Leki, I.  1991.  "Teaching second language writing; where we seem to be."  English Teaching Forum 29/2: 
     8-11; 26.

Lee, I.  1998.  " Enhancing ESL Students' Awareness of Coherence-creating Mechanisms in  Writing."  TESL 
     Canada Journal
15/2: 36-49.
------.  1998.  " Peer Reviews in A Honk Kong Tertiary Classroom."  TESL Canada Journal
15/1: 58-69.
Orr, M.  1998.  " Writing, Not Boring!"  Modern English Teacher 7/3: 36-37.
Raimes, A.  1983.  Techniques in Teaching Writing.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Robb, T. N., S. Ross & I. Shortreed.  1986.  " Salience of feedback on error and its effect on  EFL writing 
     quality."  TESOL Quarterly 20: 83-95.

Schleppegrell, M.  1984.  " Using inout methods to improve writing skills."  System 12: 287-292.

Sengupta, S.  1998.  " From Text Revision to Text Improvement: A Story of Secondary  School 
     Composition." RELC Journal 29/1: 110-137.

Shi, L.  1998.  " Effects of Pre-writing Discussions on Adult Students' Compositions."  Journal of Second 
     Language Writing
7/3: 319-345.

------.  1998.  " Negotiated Interaction In Teacher-led Versus Peer Group Adult ESL  Discussion."  TESL 
     Canada Journal
16/1: 54-74.
Smith, F.  1982.  Writing and the Writer.  London: Heinemann.
Spack, R. 1984.  "Invention Strategies and the ESL College Composition Student."  TESOL  Quarterly 18: 
White, R. V. & V. Arndt.  1992.  Process Writing.  London: Longman.
Zamel, V. 1982. " Writing: the process of discovering meaning."  TESOL Quarterly 16/2: 195-210.
------.  1985.  " Responding to student writing."  TESOL Quarterly 19/1: 79-101.


Arevart, S.  1989.  " Grammatical change through repetition."  RELC Journal 20/2: 42-60.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. & D. W. Reynolds.  1995.  " The Role of Lexical Aspects in the  Acquisition of Tense and 
     Aspect."  TESOL Quarterly 29: 107-131.

Bardovi-Harling, K.  & Z. Dornyei.  1998.  " Do Language Learners Recognize Pragmatic Violations? 
     Pragmatic Versus Grammatical Awareness in Instructed L2 Learning."
  TESOLQuarterly 32/2: 233-262.

Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. & E. Willians (eds.).  1994.  Grammar and the Language Teacher.   Hemel 
     Hempstead: Prentice Hall International.

Celce-Murcia, M. & S. L. Hilles.  1988.  Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar.   New York: 
     Oxford University Press.

Dickins, P. & E. Woods.  1988.  " Some criteria for the development of communicative grammar tasks."  
     TESOL Quarterly
22: 623-646.
Eisenstein Ebsworth, M. & W. C. Schweers.  1997.  " What Researchers Say and  Practitioners Do: 
     Perspectives On Conscious Grammar Instruction n the ELS Classroom."
   Applied Language Learning 8
     /2: 237-260.
Fotos, S. S.  & R. Ellis.  1991.  " Communicating about grammar: A task-based approach."  TESOL 
25: 605-628.

Fotos, S. S.  1994.  "Integrating grammar instruction and communicative language use  through grammar 
     consciousness-raising tasks."  TESOL Quarterly 28: 323-351.

Frank, C. & M. Rinvolucri.  1987.  Grammar in Action Again.  Hemel Hempstead: Prentice  Hall 
     International, in association with Pilgrims.

Goodey, N.  1997.  " Grammar practice and presentation in context."  English Teaching  Professional 5: 7-

Hanson, G.  2000/10.  “The English verb tense: A dynamic presentation using the cuisenaire rods.”
Harmer, J.  1989.  Teaching and Learning Grammar.  London: Longman.

Hughes, R. & M. McCarthy.   1998.  " From Sentence To Discourse: Discourse Grammar and English 
     Language Teaching."  TESOL Quarterly 32/2: 263-287.

Johnson, K.  1988.  " Mistake correction."  ELT Journal 42/2: 89-95.

Nunan, D.  1998.  " Teaching Grammar In Context."  ELT Journal 52/2: 101-109.

Parker, M.  2000.  "Pronunciation & Grammar: Using Video and Audio Activities."  English Teaching Forum
     January): 24-27, 37.

Paulston, C. B. 1971.  " The sequencing of structural pattern drills."  TESOL Quarterly 5/3: 197-208.

Schulze, M.  1998.  " Checking Grammar-teaching Grammar."  Computer Assisted Language Learning 11/ 
     2: 215-227.

Storch, N.  1998.  "A Classroom-based Study: Insights From A Collaborative Text  Reconstruction Task."  
     ELT Journal
52/4: 291-300.

Swetnam, W. B.  1999.  " Grammar Notebooks as Learning Tools."  English Teaching Forum (April/ 
     June): 25-26.


Brown, D.  1974.  " Advanced vocabulary teaching: The problem of collocation."  RELC Journal 5/2: 1-11.

Carter, R.& M. McCarthy.  1988.  Vocabulary and Language Teaching.  London: Longman.

Coe, N.  1997.  " Vocabulary Must Be Learnt, Not Taught."  Modern English Teacher 6/3: 47-48.

Gnoinska, A.  1998.  " Teaching Vocabulary in Colour."  English Teaching Forum (July/September): 13-
McCarthy, M.  1990. Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nation, I. S. P.  1990.  Teaching and Learning Vocabulary.  New York: Newbury House.

Kelly, P.  1990.  " Guessing: No substitute for systematic learning of lexis."  System 18: 199-207.

Laufer, B.  1990.  " Ease and difficulty in vocabulary learning: Some teaching implications."  Foreign 
     Language Annals
23/2: 147-155.

Richards, J. C.  1976.  "The role of vocabulary teaching."   TESOL Quarterly 10/1: 77-89.

1974.  " Word lists: problems and prospects."  RELC Journal 5/2: 69-84.

Sanaoui, R.  1995.  " Adult learners' approaches to learning vocabulary in second languages."   Modern 
     Language Journal
79: 15-28.

Twadell, W. F. 1973.  " Vocabulary expansion in the ESOL classroom."  TESOL Quarterly  7/1: 61-78.



Alderson, Charles J. & C. Clapham.  1995.  " Assessing Student Performance in the ESL Classroom."  
     TESOL Quarterly
29/1: 184-187.

Alderson, C., Clapham, C. & D. Wall.  1995.  Language Test Construction and Evaluation.      
     Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alderson, J. C.  1979.  " The cloze procedure and proficiency in English as a second language."  TESOL  
13: 219-227.  Reprinted in Oller (1983: 205-218).
Bachman, L. F.  1985.  "Performance on cloze tests with fixed ratio and rational deletions."   TESOL  
19/3: 535-555.
------.  1990.  Fundamental considerations in language testing.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DeVincenzi, F.  1995.  " Examining Standardized Test Content: Some Advice for Teachers.TESOL 
29/1: 180-184.

Farhady, H. 1982.  " Measures of language proficiency from the learner's A perspective."   TESOL Quarterly 
16/1: 43-61.
Hayward, T.  1983.  "Teaching Spoken English: An Introduction."  Practical English Teaching 4/2: 37-39.
Heaton, J. B.  1990. Classroom Testing.  London: Longman.
Homburg, T.  1984.  " Holistic evaluation of ESL compositions: can it be val-idated  objectively?" TESOL 
18: 87-107.
Hughes, A.  1989.  Testing for Language Teachers.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jonz, J.  1976.  " Improving on the basic egg: The multiple choice cloze test."  Language Learning 26: 255-

Lombardo, L.  1984.  "Oral testing: getting a sample of real language."  English Teaching Forum 22/1: 2-6.
Long, M. H.  1984.  " Process and product in ESL program evaluation."  TESOL Quarterly 18/3: 409-425.
Lopez, C. L., Champeau de, M. B. Giancarla & M. E. Arreaza-Coyle.  1997.  " A Taxonomy: Evaluation 
     Reading Comprehension in EFL.  English Teaching Forum
(July): 20-26.
McNamara, M.& D. Deane.  1995.  " Self-assessment activities: toward autonomy in language  learning."  
     TESOL Journal
5/1: 17-21.
Messick, S.  1994.  " The Interplay of Evidence and Consequences in the Validation of  Performance 
     assessment."  Educational Researcher (March): 13-23.
Norris, J. M.  2000.  "Purposeful Assessment: Selecting the Right Alternative Text."  English Teaching Forum 
     (January): 18-23.

Nunn, R.  2000.  Designing rating scales for small-group interaction.  ELT Journal.  54/2: 169-178. 

O'Malley, M. & L. V. Pierce.  1996.  Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners.   New 
     York: Addison Wesley.
Oller, J. W., Jr.  1972.  " Scoring methods and difficulty levels for cloze tests of proficiency in EFL."  
     Modern Language Journal
58: 151-158.
Pacek, D.  1996.  " Lessons to Be Learnt From Negative Evaluation."  ELT Journal 50/4: 335-343.
Parretti, L.  1998.  " Oral Exams in the Classroom."  Modern English Teacher 7/2: 40-41.

Read, J.  Assessing Vocabulary.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Purcell, E. & R. Suter. 1980.  " Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: a  reexamination."  Language 
30: 271-287.

Smolen, L., C. Newsman, T. Wathen & D. Lee.  1995.  " Developing student self-assessment  strategies."  
     TESOL Journal
5/1: 22-26.
Underhill, N.  1987.  Testing Spoken Language.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wade, S.  1990.   " Using think alouds to assess comprehension."  The Reading Teacher 43: 442- 451.

Weir, C.  1990.  Communicative Language Testing.  Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall  International.


Beretta, A.  1986.  " Program-fair language teaching evaluation."  TESOL Quarterly 20: 431-434.

Day, R. R., N. A. Chenoweth, A. E. Chun, & S. Luppescu.  1984.  "Corrective feedback in 
     native-nonnative discourse."  Language Learning 34/l: 19-45.

Fanselow, J. F. 1977.  " The treatment of error in oral work."  Foreign Language Annals 10: 583-593.

Hyland, F.  1998.  " The Impact of Teacher Written Feedback on Individual Writers."  Journal of Second 
     Language Writing
7/3: 255-286.
Jacobs, G. M., A.  B. Curtis & S .Y. Huang.  1998.  " Feedback on Student Writing: Taking the Middle 
     Path."  Journal of Second language Writing 7/3: 307-317.
Johnson, K.  1988.  "Mistakes correction."  ELT Journal 42/2: 89-96.
Leki, I.  1991.  "The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing  classes."  
     Foreign Language Annals
(New York) 24/3: 203-218.
Zamel, V.  1985.  "Responding to student writing."  TESOL Quarterly 19/1: 79-101.


Ashworth, M.  1985.  Beyond Methodology.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cross, D.  Practical Handbook of Language Teaching.  Cassell.

Doff, A.  1988.   Teaching English: Teacher's workbook.  London: Cambridge University Press.

Gebhard, J. G.  1996.  Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language.  Ann Arbor: U of Michigan    
Grant N.  Longman Keys to Language Teaching Series.  Longman.

Grosse, C. U.  1991.  " The TESOL methods course."  TESOL Quarterly 25/1: 29-49.

Grundy, P. 1994.  Beginners.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, K.  1995.  Language Teaching and Skill Learning.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Krashen, S. D. & L. Mclntosh ( Eds.).  1979.  Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.  
     Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Lewis, M. & J. Hill.  1992.  Practical Techniques for Language Teaching (new ed.).  England: Language 
 Teaching Publications.  pp. 136.

Liu, D.  1995.  " Comments on B. Kumaravadivelu's "The Postmethod Condition: (E)merging Strategies for 
     Stecond/Foregin Language Teaching."  TESOL Quarterly 29/1: 174-177.

Longman Handbooks For Language Teachers.  Longman.
Lu, L.  1987.  " Different Ways for Different Circumstances."  English Teaching Forum (July):32-33.
Prabhu, N. S.  1987.  Second Language Pedagogy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Phillips, S.  1993.  Young Learners.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prabhu, N. S.  1987.  Second Language pedagogy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Revell, J.  1979.  Teaching Techniques for Communicative English.  Bookman Books, LTD.
Scott, W. A. & L. H. Ytreberg.  1990.  Teaching English to Children.  London: Longman.
Scrivener, J.  1994.  Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English Language Teachers.  Boston: 
Stevick, E. W.  1989.  "Success with Foreign Languages."  Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Ur, P.  1999.  A Course in Language Teaching: Trainee Book.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vale, D. & A. Feunteun.  1995.  Teaching Children English.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Atkinson, D.  1993. Teaching Monolingual Classes.  Longman.

Brandes, D. & P. Ginnis.  1986.  A Guide to Students-Centered Learning.  Oxford: Basil  Blackwell.

Briton, D. M. & C. Holten.  1997.  " Into, Through and Beyond."  English Teaching Forum (October).
Chamot, A.  1995.  " Creating a community of thinkers in the ESL/EFL classroom."  TESOL  Matters 1/ 4.
Corbett, S. S. & W. F. Smith.  1984.  "Identifying Student Learning Styles: Proceed with  Caution."  
     Modern Language Journal
68: 212-221.
Cooper, T. C.  1998.  " Teaching Idioms."  Foreign Language Annals 31/2: 255-296.
Dunn, O.  1984.   Developing English with Young Learners.  Bookman Books, LTD.
Foss, K. A. & A. C. Reitzel.  1988.  " A relational model for managing second language  anxiety."   TESOL 
22: 437-454.
Gearing, K.  1999.  " Helping Less-experienced Teachers of English To Evaluate Teachers'  Guides."  ELT 
53/2: 122-127.
Gottlieb, M.  1995.  " Nurturing student learning through portfolios."  TESOL Journal 5/1: 12-14.

Hadfield, J.  1992.  Classroom Dynamics.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McCoy, I.  1979.  " Means to overcome the anxieties of second language learners."  Foreign  Language 
12: 185-189.

Phillips, D., S. Burwood & H. Dunford.  1999.  Projects with Young Learners.   Oxford: Oxford 
     University Press.

Prodromou, L. 1992.  Mixed Ability Classes.  London: Macmillan.

Scrivener, J.  1994.  Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English Language Teachers.  Boston: Heinemann.
     pp. 218.

Standford, G.  1990.  Developing effective classroom groups.  Bristol: Acora Books.

Tang, G. M.  1997.  " Pocket Electronic Dictionaries For Second Language Learning: Help  or Hindrance?"   
     TESL Canada Journal
15/1: 39-57.

Tremblay, P. F. &  R. C. Gargner.  1995.  " Expanding the motivation construct in language learning."  
Language Journal 79: 505-518.
Walz, J.  1989.  " Context and Conceptualized Language Practice in Foreign Language  Teaching."  Modern 
     Language Journal
73/2: 160-168.
1981.  " Effects of humanistic techniques on the attitude, cohesiveness, and self-concept of  foreign language 
     students."  Modern Language Journal 65/2: 149-157.

1994.  100 Ways to Enhance Self-Concept in the Classroom.  Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

1996.  Ten commandments for motivating language learners.  Paper presented at TESOL, Chicago.


[Audio-visual materials] [Games/Role Plays/Dramas] [Music]  [Stories] [Computer] [Others]

 Audio-visual materials

Chung, J. M. & S. C. Huang.  1998.  "The Effects of Three Aural Advance Organizers For Video Viewing in 
     A Foreign Language Classroom."  System 26/4: 553-565.

Farrell, T.  1998.  "Using TV "Soaps" For Listening Comprehension."  Modern English
     Teacher 7/2: 42-45.
Garza, T.  1991.  "Evaluating the Use of Captioned Video Material In Advanced  Foreign Language 
     Learning." Foreign Language Annals 24: 239-258.
Graber, D. A.  1990.  "Seeing is Remembering: How visuals contribute to learning from  television news." 
     Journal of Communication
40: 134-155.
Grimes, T.  1991.  "Mild auditory-visual dissonance in television news may exceed viewer  attentional 
     capacity." Journal of Communication Research 18: 268-298.
Henessey, J. M.  1995.  "Using foreign films to develop proficiency and to motivate the foreign  language 
     student."  Foreign Language Annals 28: 116-120.
Herron, C. A.& J. Hanley.  1992.  "Using Video to Introduce Children to a Foreign  Culture."  Foreign 
     Language Annals
25: 419-426.
Joiner, E.  1990.  "Choosing and using videotexts."  Foreign Language Annals 23/1: 53-64.
Parker, M.  2000.  "Pronunciation and Grammar: Using Video and Audio Activities."  Forum (January): 24-27, 
Scollon, R.  1999.  Cultural Codes for Calls: The Use of Commercial Television in Teaching  Culture in 
Classroom.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Secules, T., C. Herron & M. Tomasello.  1992.  "The Effect of Video Context on Foreign  Language  
     Learning."  Modern Language Journal 76:  480-490.

Stempleski, S. & B. Tomalin.  1990.  Video in action: Recipes for using video in language  teaching.  
     London: Prentice Hall International.
Summerfield, E.  1993.  Crossing Cultures Through Film.  Intercultural P.


 Games/Role Plays/Dramas 

Al-Arishi, A.Y.  1994.  "Role-play, Real-play, and Surreal-play in the ESOL Classroom."  
     ELT Journal 48/4: 337-346.
Carels, P. E.  1981.  "Pantomime in the foreign language classroom."  Foreign Language Annals 14: 407-

Crookall, D. & R. L. Oxford (Eds.).  1990.  Simulation, Gaming and Language Learning.  N.Y.: Newbury 
 House Publishers.  pp.351.

Donahue, M. & A. Parsons.  1982.  "The use of role play to overcome cultural fatigue."  TESOL  Quarterly 
     16: 359-365.
Dougill, J.  1987.  Drama Activities for Language Learning. Bookman Books, LTD.

Gareis, L.  2000.  “Two thumbs up! A student video production.”  English Teaching Forum (January) 38/1: 6-17.

Hadfield, J.  1984.  Elementary Communication Games.  London: Nelson.

Kamii, C. & R. De Vries.  1980.  Group Games in Early Education: Implication of Piajet’s Theory.  
Washington, DC: The National Association for the Education of Young Children.  pp. 256.

Lee, W. R.  1997.  LanguageTeaching games and contests.  (2nd ed.).  Oxford University Press.  pp. 208.

Maley, A. & A. Duff.  1988.  Drama Techniques in Language Learning.  Cambridge:  Cambridge 
     University Press.
Porter-Ladousse, G.  1987.  Role Play.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Piper, T.  1984.  "Putting Reality into Role Play."  TESL Canada Journal 1: 29-34.
Rinvolucri, M. & P. Davis.  1995.  More Grammar Games.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, P. G.  1981.  "Role-playing and Class Participation."  ELT Journal 35/4: 384-386.
Schwartz, S.  1997.  "At the Beginning and the End: Two 'Memorable' Activities."
     English Teaching Forum (July): 35-37.
Ur, P.  1984.  Teaching Listening Comprehension.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wessels, C.  1987. Drama.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wong, C.  1983.  Role plays in the English Classroom.  English Teaching Forum 21: 43-44.
Wright, A., Betteridge, M. & M. Buckby.  1984.  Games for Language Learning.  Cambridge: Cambridge 
     University Press.

------.  1986.  Games for Language Learning (2nd ed.).  Cambridge University Press.  pp. 212.

Dubin, F.  1974.  " Pop, rock and folk music: An overlooked resource."  English Teaching Forum 12/3: 1-
McDonald, D.  1984.  ' Singing can break the conversation barrier."  English Teaching Forum 22/1: 35.
Murphey, T.  1992.  Music and Song.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

------.  1996.  Music & Song (5th impression).  Oxford University Press.  pp. 151.

Richards, J. C.  1969.  " Songs in language learning."  TESOL Quarterly 3/2: 161-174.
Sanderson, P.  1998.  " Music and Songs in the Classroom:  Making Choices."  Modern English
     Teacher 7/2: 35-39.


Morgan, J.& M. Rinvolucri.  1983.  Once upon a time: Using stories in the language classroom.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

------.  1991 (8th printing).  Once Upon a Time: Using Stories in the Language Classroom.  Cambridge 
 University Press.  pp. 120.

Peck, J.  1989.  "Using storytelling to promote language and literacy development."  The Reading  Teacher 
     42: 138-141.
Wilhelm, K. H. & T. H. Wilhelm.  1999.  "Oh, the Tales You'll Tell."  English Teaching
     Forum (April/ June): 27.

Hardisty, D. & S. Windeatt. 1990.  CALL (2nd ed.).  pp.165.

Kroonenberg, N.  1994/1995.  “Developing communicative and thinking skills via electronic mail.”  TESOL 
4/2: 24-27.


Campbell, C. & H. Kryszewska.  1995.  Learner-Based Teaching.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.  pp. 126.

Deller, S.  1995.  Lessons from the Learner.  Longman Group UK Limited.  pp. 79.

Fried-Booth, D. L.  1987 (2nd impression).  Project Work.  Oxford University Press.  pp. 89.

Sion, C (Ed.).  1991.  More Recipes for Tired Teachers.  Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.  pp. 115.

Silberman, M.  1996.  Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject.  Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.  
pp. 189.

Wright, Andrew.  1989.  Pictures for Language Learning.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.