What does it mean to wear Levis jeans, watch Disney channel, and eat
at the MacDonald's?
Does it matter if we don't have Taiwanese films, Taiwanese songs,
or Taiwanese culture?
*Taiwanese songsas an example: 1. from 現代中國民歌，to 我們的歌 and 校園歌曲
2. Does it matter if 羅大佑 is Taiwanese or not?
John Tomlinson's views from Chapter Three
of Media and Cultural Regulation
How do we examine globalization critically?
1. Cultural Imperialism argument --Importance:
It concerns cultural identity and government policy.
Danger: It is adopted as a ready-made position; protectionism
as a global project
As a densening web of interconnectedness on all levels, globalization
is ordinary. (Kevin Robins in Tomlinson 118).
--the dominance , worldwide, of a standardized, 'homogenized' consumer
culutre, emanating from western (and particularly North American) capitalism,
represents a form of global cultural regulation.
Basic thesis: certain dominant cultures threaten to overwhelm
other more vulnerable ones. e.g. America over Europe, "the West over
the Rest," the core over the periphery, capitalism over more or less everyone.
two major strands:
1. "anti-Americanism"--against American cultural and economic
dominance, could be a form of culutral protectionism (e.g. the banning
of importation or use of satellite dishes in Islamic states).
2. against transnational capitalism supported by communication systems--
danger of protectionism or nationalism: who are "we" that get represented
in national culture?
What makes culutral protectionism difficult to implement is not merely
the technological innovationin electronic media that are making national
borders more and more permeable, but--more significantly-- the divergence
between the routine cultural desires and practices of ordinary people and
the state's interest in the preservation of 'the national culture.'
e.g. Herbert Schiller on transnational media and communication industries
"they are the 'ideologically supportive informational infrastructure'
of global capitalism. The agents for 'the promotion, protection
and extension of the modern world system' which 'create ...attachment to
the way things are in the system overall'" (Schiller qut in Tomlinson 125).
(examples of cultural domination: Disney, Hollywood Film [e.g.
the film Evita], MacDonalds, Coca-Cola)
1. not predominantly American culture--The complex cross-cutting
and overlay of communication paths and flows takes on a less benign aspect:
now it appears as a 'web' which enmeshes and binds all culutres.
the dominant culture as "the 'distanciated' influences" which order
our everyday lives
2. the viewers may receive dominant culture differently.
patterns of TV viewing--a. 'primetime' scheduled for local shows;
b. imports operate at a 'cultural discount'
3. the 'decentring' of capitalism from the West
--against core-periphery argument: This structuring of the global
capitalist system assures the continued economic weakness, cultural subordination
and conditions for the exploitation of the Third World by the First.
It does not adequately grasp the complexities of the operation
of global capitalism.
4. Globalization is a global project
Globalization is unlikely to produce an entirely regulated, homogenized
A. 'indegenization' of Western cultural goods, localization
B. deterritorialization caused by the capital; by the immigrants
from Asia, Africa or Latin America
Conclusion: what is needed is a far more nuanced, flexible and
dialectical critical perspective than that provided by the cultural imperialism
approach. Such a perspective should not attempt to 'totalize' in
the manner of the cultural imperialism thesis, but to respond to the
very different configurations of power and resistance--the various local-global
dialectics--that we are increasingly likely to be confronted with.