Definition of Spirituals:
1. Infoplease introduces the origin and the features of Spirituals
2. "... the negro spiritual developed alongside the white spiritual in the camp meetings of the American South. Both black and white versions of the genre have exerted mutually influences on each other throughout much of their history."
Online essays on Spirituals:
1. The site is devoted to Thomas Higgenson, whose work "Negro Spirituals" contains transcription of 37 pieces of the spirituals, which is presented on the site.
2. Alaine Locke's 1925 essay "The Negro Spirituals"
3. Tom Faigin's online essay "Negro Spirituals: Songs of Survival"
4. Essay by John W. Gillmore entitled "African American Spirituals"
To Fred McDowell Websites:

get to know McDowell's music and life 

To Paul Robeson Websites:

get to know Robeson's music and life 


To Marian Anderson Website:

get to know Anderson's music and life

The site exhibit the connection between Marian Anderson and the spirituals, with the collection of manuscripts

List of Spirituals:
8. Keep your Lamps Trimmed and Burning the song
Fred McDowell
9. Steal Away to Jesus the song Bernice J. Reagon
10. I've Been 'Buked the song Marian Anderson
11. Go Down Moses the song Paul Robeson
12. God's Unchanging Hand the song
Anderson Burton and the congregation at Independence Church in Tyro, Mississippi