The evolution of CANADA as a political entity began with the arrival of
French and English colonists at the beginning of the 17th century,
and the establishment of the HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY in 1670.
The name Canada derives from the Huron-Iroquois kanata, meaning
a village or settlement.
In 1867 the BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT united the Province of Canada
(divided into Ontario and Quebec) with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
to form "One Dominion under the name of Canada."
Important Historical Dates in the
forming of Canada as a nation:
1534-- Jacques Cartier
claimed the St. Lawrence basin for France, and settlements were established
at Quebec and Montreal. The area was called New France.
1670 -- Charles II
of England established HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
the battle of Quebec in 1759, British troops defeated the French forces
at Quebec City. The British approached Quebec from St. Lawrence River,
above. Their victory enabled Great Britain to take over France's
empire in Canada at the end of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) (World
1759-- the battle of Quebec
1867--Canada become a confederation of
former colonies (The British North America Act)
1914 - 1918 More than 600,000 Canadians
served in World War I.
1939 - 1945 More than a million Canadian
served in World War II.
1947-- the creation of the status of Canadian
1952-- the change in the royal title designating
the sovereign as King of Canada
1957-- the appointment of Vincent Massey
as the first Canadian governor.
1967-- expo '67 in Montreal
1982-- The Constitution Act ended British
control over amendments to Canada's Constitution.
1988-- Canadian Multiculturalism Act
The Constitution Act, signed by Queen Elizabeth
II on April 17, 1982, above, gave Canada the sole power to amend its Constitution.
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau looked on. (World
Canada--its name and history before WW II
1867 -- 1919
"the formative period for the transcontinental nation-state and its
maturing economy. A dependent colonial existence gave way to a semiautonomous
nationhood rooted in dynamic growth at home and then manifested in impressive
wartime achievements. Yet the rapid growth also brought urban slums, rising
labour discontent and social disharmony, as well as an acceleration of
linguistic, ethnic and religious divisions. And the military glory of WWI
came at a heavy price in blood and national division. . . .
The Interwar Years
Canada's population between the world wars rose from 8 to 11 million;
the urban population increased at a more rapid rate from 4 to 6 million.
created expectations for a brave new Canada, but peace brought disillusionment
and social unrest. Enlistment in the ARMED FORCES and the expansion
of the munitions industry had created a manpower shortage during the war,
which in turn had facilitated collective bargaining by industrial workers.
There had been no dearth of grievances about wages or working conditions,
but the demands of patriotism had usually restrained the militant. Trade-union
membership grew from a low of 143 000 in 1915 to a high of 379 000 in 1919,
and with the end of the war the demands for social justice were no longer
held in check. Even unorganized workers expected peace to bring them substantial
economic benefits." (from History
of Canada in About Canada)
The forming of national consciousness
during & after World War II
1947 -- Canadian citizenship became formally recognised in law
social system nationalized
By 1959-- several new social welfare programmes were in
place (Unemployment Insurance in 1940; Family Allowance in 1945);
the 1960's -- a distinctive medicare system.
1969--Official Languages Act
language, emblem and Constitution
1965-- the new national flag
1982--Trudeau 'repatriating' the Constitution in 1982.
The Constitution Act was proclaimed, removing the last remnant of British
government authority over Canadian law. But the new Act was not without
Fragmenting National Identity
Causes for independence movement: Quebec's financial woes after
the English conquest and cultural isolation/distinctness. (Theory
of triple colonization.)
By the time of the English conquest of Quebec in 1760, the French-speaking
population of Quebec had risen to 65,000. After the conquest English
and Scottish merchants moved north to make Montreal a cosmopolitan town
and to take over the fur trade established by the French, expanding
it westward until it reached the Pacific.
Donald Creighton--Dominion of the North (1944)
In this study he espoused what has become known as the 'Laurentian
thesis,' an economic history of metropolis and hinterland; by the terms
of this study, Montreal was the metropolis (or 'center') of Canada as long
as it controlled the fur trade. But when Toronto established itself
further upstream, it cut the hinterland off from Montreal, usurping its
role and becoming the new national metropolis.
一七九一年，加拿大分成上加拿大及下加拿大(Upper Canada and Lower Canada)，這兩個英屬殖民地擁有無實權的民選會議。
一八六七年：英國政府認可不列顛北美法案 (The British
North America Act) ，成立加拿大聯邦，由四省組成，魁省人口佔全境三分之一。
（中國時報國際新聞中心李根芳譯; 1995/10/31︰ 10)
Premier Parizeau released the referendum question on September 7 1993.
Do you agree that Quebec should beome sovereign, after having
made a formal offer to Canada for a neweconomic and political partnership,
within the scope of the Bill respecting the future of Quebec and the agreement
signed on June 12, 1995.
Referendum results in 1993;
Relationships between the U.S. and
the U.S.--by the mid-1950's, 60% of all Canadian exports went to the U.S.
and 70% of Canadian imports came from the U.S.
Immigration and Multiculturalism
Free Trade agreement: In 1988 Mulroney and Reagan signed
a free-trade agreement. The benefits of "free trade"
were undone by an overvalued Canadian dollar, corporate restructuring,
a new goods and services tax, and a severe recession that led to a decline
in domestic manufacturing and an enormous loss of jobs. Bumperstickers
read, "Free Canada, Trade Mulroney" (The "Canadian
the postwar new-comers were at first mainly British,
with Dutch and German
quickly gathering numbers;
in the 1960s -- Mediterranean
peoples, notably Italians, Greeks and Portuguese,
in the 1970s -- a steadily growing number
of Asians--from India and China via Hong Kong
especially and of people of ultimately African origin
via the Caribbean.
New immigration legislation in the 1970s opened the borders to larger
numbers of Asian immigrants...
Two world wars and the Depression of the 1930s
slowed down the pace of immigration, which did not begin to pick up until
On 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, 'An Act for the
perservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada.'
(See the complete text of this Act in Hutcheon
The 1981 census was ...the first to allow respondents to declare
their maternal as well as their paternal heritage, which provides a limited
opportunity to reveal more than one ethnic background.
Multiculturalism Act (1988)