population: majority African, some East Indians, Europeans, and
history: Discovered by Columbus in 1494, Jamaica was a Spanish
settlement until it was captured by the British in 1655.
the Moroon--To the safety of the impenetrable hills (e.g. Blue Mountains),
bands of former slaves fled, after they were freed
and armed by the Spanish to fight the English when they seized the
island in 1655. The Maroons, as they became known, founded a community
and underground state that would fight a guerrilla war against the English
settlers on and off for nearly eighty years.
Jamaica prospered during the 1700's. Sugar became the major
crop, and the island ranked as the most important slave market in the Western
Full internal self-government came in 1959, within
the West Indies Federation, and full independence with the British Commonwealth
Since 1960's, Jamaica has faced many problems, including
inflation, unemployment, and poverty. Many Jamaicans became dissatisfied,
and their discontent sometimes let to riots and violent crime. .
. . Michael Manley of the People's National Party was elected prime
minister of Jamaica in 1972. He sought to solve the economic
problems by adopting socialistic policies. The next prime minister
was Edward Seaga of the Jamaican Labor Party.
World Book V11: 23
Jamaica: A short
History: history offered by Island Life.com with pictures.
- People: 90% of African descent.
in Kingston 《國家與人民》p. 172
"In the ghetto, where discontent was ever-present,
the ideas of such black nationalists as the Jamaican born Marcus Garvey
were gaining momentum. Conventional social democracy had not improved
the lot of the sufferers in the ghetto. Garveyism, whose potency
had been sharpened by the American Black Power ideology of the Sixties, was combining with Rastafarianism; it seemed
to offer a viable alternative to what was widely perceived as the
corrupt system of Babylon." (from The
Story of Jamaican Music)
Marcus Garvey--the first prophet
of black self determination in the 1920s, founded the Black Star shipping
line, intended to transport descendants of slaves back to Africa.