Four Stages in Caribbean literature
under construction May 7, 1998
Birbalsingh, Frank, ed.  Frontiers of Caribbean Literature in English.  Macmillan.  pp.  x-xi

The problems which Caribbean immigrants encountered abroad are different from those which they faced in their homeland.
At home they faced poverty, exploitation, and social and political insecurity, while abroad they encountered racial
discrimination, second-class citizenship and alienation. 

four stages in Caribbean literature: