I. Traditional Chinese Traders --
Mostly from Hokkien and Kwangtong
Adaptable, resilient, a high level of family and clan solidarity
invited by the colonizers
e.g. Singapore in the nineteenth century
Sojourners --recognized as "hua-chiao" (e.g. 1911 revolution)
the conventional "sojourner option gets changed; three reasons
irreconciliable with the emerging nationalisms of the former colonial world,
particularly in South East Asia
the second and third generations become more localized,
the Chinese Revolution in 1949 created a rift
e.g. Malya's decolonization
II. The Other Two Kinds: Indentured
workers and Free Artisans.
Historical Photo Exhibit: including
* Huaren: Chinese
Cohen, Robin. Global Diaspora: An Introduction.
Seattle: U of Washington P, 1997.