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  History of Slavery

  • Slavery and the Triangle trade (from Europe to Africa to Americas)

  • a. definition 1. societal institution based on ownership, dominance, and exploitation of one human being by another and reciprocal submission on the part of the person owned. 
     2. Members of family can be separated at the will of the owner.
     3. Slavery at present--the selling of people or self-sale for special purposes--e.g. prostitution; the outpouring of mainland Chinese workers to places such as U.S. and Taiwan 
    b. the Triangle Trade: 
     1. route: from England, with merchandise such as weapons, ammunition, metal, liquor, trinkets, and cloth, to the west Coast of Africa.  From Africa, with human cargo, to either West Indies or English colonies.  And then with agricultural products such as sugar back to England.
     2. "Middle Passage"  --  Drawings of the Middle Passage by Feelings 
    Diagram of a middle passage slave ship, showing the appalling conditions of transportation.  Identity and Difference 323

     3. this trade is a source of wealth to tribal chiefs, to the shipping business, to plantation owners in the South of U.S., and to merchants and shipbuilders in the North.
     4. An estimated 8 to 15 million Africans reached the Americas from the 16th throught the 19 century, with a peak of about 6 million arriving in the 18th century alone.
  • Replaced by Indentured Labour in the 19th century
Ideology of racism: one example of biological determinism

diagram from Sander Gilman's Difference and Pathology of racial/ethnic classifications by physical charaacteristicss, such as cranial shape and size. 
Identity and Difference 308