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Roland Barthes

I. Major Work

  1. first stage: Marxist-- Writing Degree Zero (1953)  to Mythologies (1957)
  2. second stage: Structuralist -- Mythologies -- The Fashion Design  (The Death of the Author in 1967, also the year of publication of Writing and Difference)
  3. third stage: post-structuralist -- S/Z
  4. fourth stage: physical experience of reading, autobiography, A Lover's Discourse, on photography.
II. Major Ideas
Barthes is hard to categorized in some way.  He is marxist (influenced by Sartre, Marx and Brecht), structuralist (influenced by Saussure and Levi-Strauss) and then post-structuralist (influenced by Lacan, Foucault, Derrida and Kristeva).


1. Signifier 2.Signified
3. Sign
I. Signifier (form with meanings)
II. Signified (concept)
III. Sign
    3. Barthes in Mythologies
      -- discuss the contradictory surface and latent meanings in cultural incidences;
      -- disclose the inherent meanings of the ritual of wrestle (which is not a sport but a spectacle); -- critiques the ideologies underly popular culture, such as colonialism, sexism (gender stereotypes such as Garbo and Audrey Hepburn), etc.

  1. Barthes and Foucault (An Outline by Allison Lin)