[Bibliography] [Relevant Link] [Other Theories][Marxism]馬克思主義與文化研究(Fall, 1999)
  from 《資本論》第一冊、第一章
 Capitalism  + Industrialism 

Commodification, Alienation

劉紀雯 1999/10/14 初稿
  Marx in 1975;
基本定義 商品:生產使用價值(Use value)以作交換.
-- use value, exchange value, value and price: 
price: 商品的價格(因供需而起伏),
exchange value: 商品和其他商品的對應交換關係(這裡重點並非以物易物,而是經由商品的比較,產生商品的社會關係和抽象價值.)
value:  決定商品之間的交換價值.
use value: 決定商品的價值.
  • 資本主義的兩大影響:商品化、抽象化和Alienation

  • I.  商品化 -- 什麼是商品的價值?
    馬克斯 in Capital, Chap 1認為:商品的價值決定於它所需要的製作時間和技術(labor time).
    Schmitt: other properties to consider: raw materials; 
    "The question for Marx was how the surface reality of the marketplace is connected with the deep reality of the social division of labor, or how the marketplace assigns who works where, and when, and how much.  The task is to connect the surface (the exchange of commodities) with the deep reality (the work that is done in the society to maintain it).  In the context of the Labor Theory of Value, that task takes the form of trying to clear up the relation between values and prices" (108). 


    因此,資本主義將人的空間資本化、抽象化.-- see 引文  abstraction of labor

    演進至後工業資本主義,Jameson 看到社會上「全面性」的商品化.(overall commodification)

    III.Alienation and Exploitation 
  • 商品的價值如何界定?exchange value, use value, symbolic value, etc. 
  • 資本主義的影響:對人的認同,社會關係和社會空間有何影響?


Different kinds of
Values Abstraction: Alienation:
  • alienation and exploitation:

  • "According to Marx alienation occurs in commodity production only.  Under such conditions the exchangerelations of market society separate production from consumption, and the product acquires a life of its own, independent of the producer, and comes to oppress him as an alien force.  Exploitation, on the other hand, is not confined to situation of commodity production. .  .The serf is exploited by the feudal lord, even though he produces only use-values.  . . . Exploitation, for Marx, is the appropriation of the surplus labour of one class by another class.  (Barbalet 95)
  • "The theory of alienation in Capital is derived from the labour theory of value and the concomitant theory of surplus value.
    1. the value of all commodities, including labour power, is determined by the socially necessary labour time required for their production;
    2. the worker is paid the full value of his labour power when he sells it to the capitalist;
    3. that when the already purchased labour power is consumed in production by the capitalist it creates, in addition to its own value, a surplus value which constitutes a nett gain to the capitalist.   (Barbalet 97)
    4. impoverishment of the working class ensues.
  • ". . . in Capital the worker's alienation is a consequence of the sale of his labour-power to the capitalist, rather than a result of his labour -- in the form of a commodity -- being appropriated by the capitalist, as it is in the Manuscripts. . . . While individual's alienation is a consequence of commodity production, according to Capital, it is not the individual's own production of commodities which accounts for his alienation, for the individual labourer does not produce commodities.   The individual's alienation is located in the alienation of his labour power. (Barbalet 114)

  • Work Cited:
    Marx, Karl.  Capital.
    Schmitt, Richard.  Introduction to Marx and Engels: A Critical Reconstruction.  London: Westview P, 1987.
    Barbalet, J. M.  Marx's Construction of Social Theory.  Routledge & Kegan Paul.  Boston: 1983.