Nation and Gender Bibliography

    (請參考Theories of Nation, Nationalism & National IdentityBibliography書目)
Nation & Gender
Nation and Gender
Important Issues重要議題
Body, Space & 
Postcolonial Identity Politics
  1. Nation and Gender

  2. 《騷動》. (1996) 〔女人.國家與政黨〕
    Anthias, Floya & Nira Yuval-Davis.  Racialized Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle.  NY: Routledge, 1992. (examples from UK)

    Parker, Andrew, et al, eds.  Nationalisms and Sexualities.  NY: Routledge, 1992.

    *Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches & Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: U of California P, 1989.

    *Mohanty, et al, eds. Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1991.

    *Sharp, Joanne P. "Gendering Nationhood: a feminist engagement with national identity." Bodyspace. Ed. Nancy Duncan. NY: Routledge, 1996.

    *Walby, Sylvia. "Woman and Nation." Mapping the Nation. Ed. Gopal Balakrishnan. Introd. Benedict Anderson. NY: Verso, 1996: 235-54.

  3. Enloe, Cynthia.  Bananas, Beaches & Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics.  Berkeley: U of California P, 1989.
  4. --deals with nation's exploitation of women; 
    --considers women as consumers, as global political actors, as commodities. 
    --major argument: "relations between governments depend not only on capital and weaponry, but also on the control of women as symbols, consumers, workers and emotional comforters."(e.g. sexism in tourism [on the beach],  colonialism, in the army [base], in diplomacy, international trade, third-world industry and domestic services.) 
    --the cover says the book "shows how thousands of women tailor their marriage to fit the demands of state secrecy; how foreign policy would grind to a halt without secretaries to handle money transfers and arms shipmetnts; and how women are working in hotels and factories around the world in order to service their governments' debts."
    Mohanty, et al, eds.  Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism.  Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1991.
    --collection of essays under four sections: (those with * have to do with nation) 
    I. "Power, Representation, and Feminist Critique" with essays focusing on questions of theory, culture, and the politics of representation... 
    II. *"Public Policy, the State, and Ideologies of Gender"addresses political, economic, and ideological constructions of racialized womanhood in the context of the relations of rule of the state
    III.  *"National Liberation and Sexual Politics" contains two essays which present more or less opposite positions on the relation of nationalism and sexuality: Angela Gilliam argues against what she refers to as the sexualism of certain Western feminist perspectives on women's liberation, while Evelyne Accad foregrounds the contradictions inherent in national liberation movements which are built on masculinist assumptions about war and sexuality. 
    IV.  "Race, Identity, and Feminist Struggles" focuses on questions of identity and feminist practice. (40-41) 

    --Third World defined geographically.  "Third world refers to the colonized, neocolonized or decoloniaed countries (of Asia, Africa, and Latin America) whose economic and political structures have been deformed within the colonial process, and to black, Asian, Latino, and indigenous peoples in North America Europe, and Australia. ...The term third world is a form of self-empowerment.  However, the unproblematized use of a term such as third world women would suggest the equation of struggles and experiences of different groups of women, thus flattening and depoliticizing all internal hierarchies." (ix-x) 
    --relevant articles
    1.  "Third World and Third World Women": introduces theories on these two terms, with a bibliography. 
    2.  Suleri, Sara.  "Woman Skin Deep: Feminism and the Postcolonial Condition."  Critical Inquiry (Summer 1992): 756-769. 

    Sylvia Walby.  "Woman and Nation."  Mapping the Nation. Ed. Gopal Balakrishnan, Introd. Benedict Anderson.  NY: Verso, 1996: 235-55.
    重點-differential integration/involvement of women into national projects 
    A﹒五種論點 (p. 235-36):citizenship/ethnic/national/'race' relations---gender 
    a.  b. 不相影響 
    c. 女性受雙重壓迫 
    d.  性別劃分因國/種族而異 
    e.  互相影響 

    B﹒女性加入國家建構的五種方式(p. 236)-Anthias and Yuval-Davis 
    a.  as biological reproducers of members of ethnic collectivities-生育 
    b.  as reproducers of the boundaries of ethnic/national groups;——養育racial identity 
    c.  as participating centrally in the ideological reproduction of the collectivity and as transmitters of its culture;——教育national identity 
    d.  as signifiers of ethnic/national differences-as a focus and symbol in ideological discourses used in the construction, reproduction and transformation of ethnic/national categories;——象徵 
    e.  as participants in national, economical, political and military struggles——戰爭. 

    [批評:1. Emphasis placed on cultural and ideological levels, 沒有考慮女性工作(labour) 
    2.  class and other forms of social hierarchy - Walby differential involvement of women in national projects ] 
    C.  Jayawardena-important feminist components of nationalist movements in Third World countries 
    1.  feminist and nationalist movements were closely interconnected, 
    2.  They cannot be understood outside of an understanding of imperialism and both local and international capitalism. P. 240 
    D. Enloe-gender and the relations between nations e.g. sex tourism, Third World women as cheap labour 
     Walby's main arguments:  
    --national projects: some as gender projects (e.g. for democracy, legitimacy, for women's interests) 
    --nationalism, militarism and gender-Women's peace movements and internationalism.  Transnational projects: e.g. EEC and equal opportunities legislation; feminism = Western feminism?  p. 252 
    --spatial ordering of gender-women's political activities are more local than men's, less nationalist.

  5.  Sharp, Joanne P.  "Gendering Nationhood: a feminist engagement with national identity."  Bodyspace.  Ed. Nancy Duncan.  NY: Routledge, 1996.
  6. (前提:nation formations and the importance of family as an ISA)-gendered constructions of nations and national citizens 

    "...the nation is embodied within each man and each man comes to embody the nation.  This is the horizontal fraternity to which Anderson refers....  Women are not equal to the nation but symbolic of it.  Many nations are figuratively female... In the national imaginary, women are mothers of the nation or vulnerable citizens to be protected."(99) 

  7.  East European Communist regime as an example: 

  8. During the communist period, the primary division in society was not public/private per se but a division 'between public' (mendacious, ideological0 and private (dignified, truthful ) discourses'. 
    1.  full employment, not a sign of liberation 
    2.  family (free space) in contrast to the state-this tend to deflect attention away from power dynamics operating within the family. 
     The present: 
    3.  women are blamed for social problems.  ...This attitude legitimates women's return to the domestic sphere ... 
    • Sharp's arguments: 
  9. radical democracy -plurality "the constant subversion and overdetermination of one [subject position] by the others" (Mouffe) 
  10. The creation of the appearance of [national] unity is only possible through struggle, ..a contest between gendered identities. "not simply a case of men versus women, but instead a recognition of the pressures and divisions which arise from employing gender to fashion a national community in somebody's, but not everybody's image"(Enloe). 
  11. the domestic: not only a space of the containment of women; it is in certain places [e.g. some East European nation] a site of resistance against state requirements for labour, and a space of radical politics aiming to transcend the status quo
  1. 身體、空間、與後殖民認同Body, Space & Postcolonial Identity Politics
Hall, Stuart. "Cultural Identity and Diaspora." Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990. 222-37.

---, et al, eds. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, 1996.

Gilroy, Paul "'It ain't where you're from it's where you're at' The dialectics of diasporic identification'. Third Text 13 (Winter): 3-16.

  • Grosz 'Inscriptions and Body Maps: Representations and the Corporeal" pp. 236- Space, Gender, Knowledge.
  • Three theses:

    1. as a material series of processes, power actively marks or brands bodies as social, inscribing them with the attributes of subjectivity
    2. consciousness is an effect or result, rather than the cause of the inscription of flesh and its conversion into a (social) body
    3. while relying on the work of a number of male theoriests of the body (Foucault, Nietzche, and Lingis), feminist assertions of sexual difference simultaneously problematise their work.
    Foucault: p. 238 Power is not a set of signs,} Power is a material force that does and makes things... he argues that power is inscribed on and by bodies through modes of social supervision and discipline as well as self-regulation.