Chartterjee, Partha. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? Zed Books Ltd., 1986.
---. The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993.
|--The book starts with challenging Anderson's view of the modular forms
of nation-building; discuss India's national projects and their relationships
with Women, Peasant, Outcast and Communities.
--Arguing that scholars have been mistaken in equating political nationalism with nationalism as such, he shows how anticolonialist nationalists in India produced their own domain of sovereignty within colonial society well before beginning of their political battle with the imperial power. These nationalists divided their culture into material and spiritual domains, and staked an early claim to the spiritual sphere, represented by religion, caste, women and the family, and peasants. Charterjee shows how middle-class elites first imagined the nation into being in this spiritual dimension and then readied it for political contest, all the while 'normalizing' the aspirations of the various marginal groups that typify the spiritual sphere.
--"The most powerful as well as the most creative results of the nationalist imagination in Asia and Africa are posited not on an identity but rather on a difference with the "modular" forms of the national society propagated by the modern West" (5).
--"The Nation and its Women"--"I will argue...that the relative unimportance of the women's question in the last decades of the nineteenth century is to be explained not by the fact that it had been censored out of the reform agenda or overtaken by the more pressing and emotive issues of political struggle. The reason lies in nationalism's success in situating 'women's question" in an inner domain of sovereignty, far removed from the arena of political contest with the colonial state." (117)
Hubel, Teresa. Whose India? : The Independence Struggle in British and Indian Fiction and History. Duke UP, 1996.
---. The Rhetoric of English India
"Woman Skin Deep: Feminism and the Postcolonial Condition." Critical Inquiry 18 (Summer 1992): 756-769.
---. The Rhetoric of English India
Arun P. Mukherjee's "Canadian Nationalism, Canadian Literature and
Racial Minority Women." The Other Woman: Woman of Colour in Contemporary
Canadian Literature. Toronto: Sister Vision P, 1995: 421-45.
|"I agree with James blaut that we must evaluate
each nationalism in terms of its aspirations and achievements rather than
universalize about an abstraction which has really been derived from the
European historical experience of ethnic nationalisms (33)."(423)
"Canadian literature--created, published, taught and critiqued udner the aegis of Canadian nationalism--promotes the settler-colonial view of Canada." (428) e.g. Northrop Frye, Margaret Atwood, D.G. Jones and John Moss
Corse, Sarah M. Nationalism and Literature: The Politics of Cuture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.
|a sociological study; discusses the relationships between national literature and nation-building in Canada and the U.S. in terms of 1. their historical timing; 2. the canonical novels, 3. literary prize, 4. the bestsellers, 5. literary meaning and cultural use.|
Patricia Smart. "The (In?)Compatibility of Gender and Nation in Canadian and Quebecois Feminist Writing." ECW 54 (1994): 12-22.
|compares the differences between English Canadian feminisms and Quebecois Feminisms. While the former deals with the issues of nation, the latter oftentimes crosses national borders and are concerned with issues of gender only. The differences are attributed to the socio-political environment of each.|
|A general introduction to Canadian films, its major directors (Arcand,
Cronenberg, Jutra) and components (NFB, Ontario New Wave, Quebec
Cinema, Women, Animation, Experimental Film);
with a time-line of important events and films (from 1894 to 1994).
|Without attempting to define Canadian films generally, the articles
in this issue discuss
1. Theses on Canadian nationalism, 2. Art Cinema in the 60's, 3. the Politics of Otherness, 4. Pierre Perrault, 5. I've Heard the Mermaid Singing, 6.Egoyan, 7. Dead Ringers, 8. American Cousin, 9. Canadian (inter)national Cinema, 10. Gierson and Canadian nationalism, etc.
The editor: "The dangers of an ultranationalism, elaborated in several articles in this issue, are obvious: bourgeois nationalism merely reproduces a dominant hegemony which feeds and is fed by capital. The goal of progressive national film culture is to generate a space that neither adopts the myopic blueprints of nationhood or the flatterning overview of internationalism (with its often disguised over-arching imperialism). Such a space resides between this double hegemony, in a politics of locality." (2)
|--"For nationalism in Canada has never been (and can not be) a nationalism
of the whole nation, but always a nationalism of its parts.
For the first time since of beginning of the century, Quebec is at the foregront of the new (self-cancelling) Canadian nationalism, ...For Canadian nationalism, new or old, has never been anything more than a desire for the recognition of autonomous or associated status, and this holds as true for the Dominion as it does for Quebec nationalism's question-seeking associated sovereignty. It is as impossible for Canadian nationalists to speak of sovereignty or culutre as it is impossible for Canadians to speak of the Canadian nation." (4)
|--A very interesing article discussing issues of Canadian non-identity
in Canadian popular culture (of enjoyment). e.g. Canadian film, Canadian
--Sees any definition of national identity as relational, discursive and, above all, precarious. Uses national enjoyment as evidence. "National brand" such as Molson, "Canadian" film, "Quebecois" film can all be robbed by the others. "The enjoyment of our shopping, even of our breakfast bowl of bran flakes, is somewhat infringed upon by bilingual packagine!" (23)
--Canada defined as a Lack: "Canada does not exist, but the symptoms of Canada do" (29).
--"The Nation/Thing is a void around which enjoyment is structured and organized. ...3 faces of the hegemonic projects responding to the non-existence of Canada: a) The reactionary nationalism of the reform Party and Quebecois separatists, who are attempting to force the Nation into positive existence through a hard, conservative suturing of the social. b) The Liberal, central project, which broadly collects the three main political parties in an effort to practice a looser sturing, a suturing around an 'implant' (a revised Constitution, a Social Charter) but which faces the political, hegemonic task of investing it with sublime qualities so that it fills out the gaps in the symbolic order. c) A radical subversion of attempts at suturing the social, a project which...maybe doesn't even need to be develped hegemonically, as it is in the nature of the social (life-world) to overflow whatever nets of signification are being cast to suture the social." (28-29)
|This issue reflects "a surge, a new wave of filmmaking in this 'imaginary'
--has two articles on Montreal ('Let the Sleeping Girl Lie', Montreal in T.V. mini-series.
-- interviews Srinivas Krishna, discuesses Sophie Bissonnette (political documentary filmmaker), Bordwell, etc.
| 1.Defines the quest for identity them in 1980's Quebecois films
as "a sisyphian search for a holy grail: the patriarchal figure of Quebec
soceity" (6) ; 2. Explains why women are treated as the Other in Quebecois
films, 3. sees the women in Lea Pool's films as "the Other Other," her
films as "a cinema for paradox, continually vacillating between the desire
for a 'sexual difference' and the representation of a sexual
"In this article I will raise the ways in which the discourse of identity in Quebec cinema over the last decade has relegaged questions of relations to difference to a marginal representation of what is the position of the other woman in the social. I will argue how this relation to the other-woman, ..., takes on the allure of an existential quest for men in which the authenticity of a Quebecois subject in its generic sense is endlessly constructed. " (4)
|A profile of Lapage's career with a focus on his filmic production.
"He is the kind of visionary most at home suspended between worlds" (57).
--Relating his film to his life: Polygraph to his own experience of being involved in a rape-murder case of his best friend. "Like the protagonist [in Le confessional], he has an adopted brother The director's mother suffers from diabetes, ...his own father was a taxi driver..."
--his gender position: "'I'm feminine and masculine in all sorts of ways,' he says, 'Whether with women or men, I've always had really passionate relationships, and they always end really, really rough. It's had an important effect on my art, but I don't base the subject matter on it--it's not like Woody Allen'" (58).