and Bibliography; Course Fall,
JOURNALS in English Studies
Blending Reference Material into Your Writing
For general guidelines
of in-text citation, punctuation
and using ELLIPSES
, please go to Dr. Connor's pages.
a Reference into Your Text
Making a General Reference Without a Page Number
|The women of Thomas Hardy's novels are the special focus of three
essays by Nancy Norris, Judith Mitchell, and James
Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number
|Herbert Norfleet states that the use
of video games by children improves their hand and eye coordination (45).
Putting the Page Number Immediately After the Name
Note: Sometimes this is a more expeditious
|Boughman (46) urges carmakers to "direct
the force of automotive airbags upward against the windshield"(emphasis
Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of
|"Each DNA strand provides the pattern of bases
for a mew strand to form, resulting in two complete molecules" (Justice,
Moody, and Graves 462).
Note: In the case
of a paraphrase, you should show when the borrow begins:
|One source explains thatthe
DNA in the chromosomes must be copied perfectly during cell reproduction
(Justice, Moody, and Graves).
Note: Cite the title of an article, the
name of the magazine, the name of a bulletin or book, or the name of the
publishing organization. Search for the author's name at the bottom of
the opening page and at the end of the article.
Source When No Author Is Listed
Note: The work
Cited entry would read: "Name ¡V Dropping."
County June/July 1994: 63. Shorten magazine
title to a key word for the citation, but give the full title in the Works
Citing the Title of a
|Articles about the unusual names of towns, such as Peculiar, Missouri;
Kinmundy, Illinois; and Frostproof, Florida, are a regular feature of one
national magzine ("Name-Dropping" 63).
Citing the Title of a Report
|One bank showed a significant decline in assets despite an increase
in its number of depositors (Annual Report 23).
Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate
|The report by the school board endorsed the use of Channel One in
the school system and said that "students will benefit by the news reports
more than they will be adversely affected by the advertising" (Clarion
County School Board 3-4).
Note: Since there is no page number, omit
the parenthetical citation. Instead, introduce
the type of source.
Unprinted Sources That Have No Page Number
|Mrs. Peggy Meacham said in her phone interview
that prejudice against younger black women is not as severe as that against
young black males.
the Credibility of the Source
Note: Internet sources can be troublesome.
The following examples might be introduced in these ways to verify their
|The UCLA Center for Communication
Policy, which conducted an intensive study of television violence
during 1995, has advised against making the television industry the "scapegoat
for violence" by advocating a focus on "deadlier
and more significant causes: inadequeate parenting, drugs, underclass rage,
unemployment and availability of weaponry" (UCLA
Television Violence Report 1996).
Note: If you are not
certain about the credibility of a source, do not cite it or describe
the source so that readers can make their own judgments:
|John Armstrong, a spokesperson
for Public Electronic Access to Knowledge (PEAK), states:
As we venture into this age of biotechnology,
many people predict gene manipulation will be a powerful tool for improving
the quality of life. They foresee plants engineered to resist pests, animals
designed to produce large quantities of rare medicinals, and humans treated
by gene therapy to relieve suffering.
|An Iowa non-profit organization,
the Mothers for Natural Law, says--but offers
no proof--that eight major crops are
affected by genetically engineered organisms¡Xcanola, corn, cotton,
dairy products, potatoes, soybeans, tomatoes, and yellow crook-neck squash
("What's on the Market").
Note: In the parenthetical citation, put the name of the author
of the article you quote instead of the speaker's name: e.g. (qtd.
in Peterson 9A).
Note: You need a
double reference that introduces the speaker and includes
a clear reference to the book or article where you found the quotation
or the paraphrased material. Cite the original source if at all possible.
Frequent Page References to the Same Work
It is not necessary to repeat the author's name in
every instance; a specific page reference is adequate, or you can provide
act, scene, and line if appropriate.
If you are citing from two
or more novels in your paper, provide both titles (abbreviated) and page(s)
unless the reference is clear.
Note: Cite the author and page in the
text and put a comprehensive entry in the work cited list. If you quote
more than one author in the book, you can make in-text citation to name
and page, but your works cited entries can be shortened by cross references.
Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies
Note: Suppose you also
cite a portion of Dickens's novel, Great Expectations, from the
same anthology. Your Works Cited page will require four entries.
|In "the Skaters" John
Gould Fletcher compares "the Grinding click" of ice skates to "the brushing
together of thin wing-tips of silver" (814).
Fletcher, John Gould. "The Skaters." Patterns
in Literature. Ed. Edmund J. Farrell, Ouida H. Clapp, and
Karen Kuehner. Glenview: Scott, 1991. 814.
In the Text
|In "The Skater" John Could Fletcher compares
"the grinding click of ice skates to "the brushing together of thin wing-tips
of silver" (814). The use of metaphor is central to his poetic efforts.
One source emphasizes Flecher's use of metaphor, especially his comparison
of "the silhouettes of a group of Metaphor give us a fresh look,
as when Lew Sarett in his "requiem for a Modern Coresus" uses
coins to make his ironic ststement about the wealthy king of sixth century
To him the moon was a silver dollar, spurn
Into the sky by some mysterious hand; the sun
Was a gleaming golden coin - -
His to purloin
The freshly minted stars were dimes of delight
Flung out upon the counter of the night.
In yonder room he lies,
With pennies in his eyes. (814)
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations.
Farrell et al. 675-785.
Farrell, Edmund J., Ouida H. Clapp, and Karen
Kuehner, eds. Patterns in Literature. Glenview: Scott, 1991.
Fletcher, John Gould. ¡§The Skaters.¡¨Farrell
et al. 814.
Sarett, Lew. ¡§Requiem for a Modern
Croesus.¡¨Farrell et al. 814.
Extra Information to In-Text Citations
Note: Your reader may have a different
anthology than yours, so a clear reference will enable the reader to locate
the passage. The same is true with a reference to "(Romeo and Juliet
Note: (1) An Abbreviation for the title
(2) The volume used, and (3) the page number(s).
|Joseph Campbell suggests that man is a slave
yet also the master of all the gods (Masks 1:472).
Two or More Works by the Same Writer
Note: Two novels
are both abbreviated: e.g. (Tess
xxii; Mayor 1).
Several Authors in One Citation
Note: Put them in
alphabetical order to match of the Works Cited page, or place them in the
order of importance to the issue at hand. e.g. (Robertson 98-134;
Rollins 34; Templass 561-65).
Additional Information with the Page Number
Note: Classical prose works may appear in
two or more edition. Provide extra information to chapter, section, or
part so that readers can locate a quotation in any edition of the work.
Homer takes great efforts in describing the
shield of Archilles (18:558-709).
|Horton (22, n.3)
suggests that Melville forced the symbolism, but Welston (199-248, esp.
234) reaches an opposite conclusion.
Note: Set off long prose quotations of four
lines or more by indenting one inch or 10 spaces with Courier font. Do
not use quotation marks with the indented material. If you quote only
one paragraph or the beginning of one, do
not indent the first line an extra five spaces.
space between your text and the quoted materials.
Place the parenthetical citation after the final mark of punctuation. If
you quote more than one paragraph,
indent all paragraphs an extra three spaces
in Courier font or a quarter inch in other fonts. If the first sentence
quoted does not begin a paragraph in the original source do not indent
it an extra three spaces.
Note: Restrictive connectors, such as that
or because, create restrictive clauses and eliminate a need for the comma.
Without a comma, the capital letter is unnecessary.
Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter
Quotation with Parentheses And Brackets
Note: Use brackets
for interpolation. The use of brackets signals the insertion.
Comment the follows the quotation
Note: Use parentheses to enclose comments
or explanations that immediately follow a quotation.
|Boughman (46) urges carmakers to "direct the force of automotive
airbags upward against the windshield¡¨(emphasis
Comment that goes inside the quotation
Use brackets to clarify
Use brackets to establish correct grammar
within an abridge quotation:
Use brackets to note the addition of understanding:
Use brackets with sic
to indicate errors in the original