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馬克思主義與文化研究(Fall, 1999)

劉紀雯 1999/10/7 初稿
Below Marx at 1939; from MARX AND ENGELS ARCHIVE,
馬克斯(Karl Marx) 
  • 生於德國(Trier, Germany, on May, 1818)  猶太中產階級.
  • 革命者(恩格斯在他的墓前說他是「before all else a revolutionist」).1845-1847 年間加入共產黨.和恩格斯都加入第一國際(The International Working Men's Association;  1964年建立),之後馬克斯成為其領袖.(Schimitt xiii; 3).

  • 作品:
  • 和恩格斯一起完成 German Ideology(1845-46; published 1932)和 Communist Manifesto (1847) 等作品.馬克斯自己的重要作品有: 《資本論》Capital Grundrisse(又稱Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy)

  • German Ideology: 第一部份提出馬克斯的歷史觀.(摘要
  • 其他作品:Grundrisse 介於早期作品和《資本論》之間.討論資本、製造與消費等議題.


  •  不同歷史階段和不同的製造形式相對映.
  • 拒絕個人主義.
  • 社會由不同階級構成.
  • 社會底層(或稱經濟結構)和上層結構 (Base and Superstructure)的關係
  --  更分殊地檢討經濟結構和上層結構的關係
  --  檢查文化文本的製造和生產關係、商品化過程、消費行為
  • 誰是wage laborers?  
  • 人(或我們的意識)如何被物質和生產方式限制?(例子:農業社會的人以家庭,部落或工作來定義自我.Cf. Schmitt 32)

  • 上層結構和底層結構的關係:
    • -- reflect, determine, cause, condition,sets the limit  的意義有何不同?(例:法律和經濟結構孰先孰後?政治呢?)
      -- "If the base is the cause of the superstructure, it cannot be dependent on it.  [But capitalism depends on the legal system.]  (以後會討論到:mediation, circuit, network)
      -- Schmitt's interpretation: 
      • "the base is what we do: the superstructure is how we talk about it."(Schmitt 37)
      • "the base determines the superstructure: Our practices determine how we describe and justify them" (Schmitt 38). 

摘要From German Ideology (1846) 
  • four forms of ownership: tribal, the ancient communal and State ownership, feudal or estate, capitalist.  
A. Ideology in General, German Ideology in Particular
  • determinism
Men are producers of their conceptioins, ideas, etc.--real, active, as they are conditioned by a definite develpment of their productive forces and of the intercourse corresponding to these, up to its furthest forms.  (153)

Morality, religion, metaphysics, all the rest of ideology and their corresponding forms of consciousness, thus no longer retain the semblance of independence.  They have no history, no development, but men, developing their material production and their material intercourse, alter, along with this their real existence, their thinking and the products of their thinking.  Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life (Tucker 153-54)

  • Ideology = the ruling ideas of ruling class 
The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas: i.e., the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its rulling intellectual force (Tucker172). 

. . . each new class which puts itself in the place of one ruling before it, is compelled , . .  ., to represent its interest as the common interest of all the members of society. 

  • against the "history-of-ideas" approach or evolution of the Spirit.
The whole trick of proving the hegemony of spirit in history . . . is . . . confined to the following three efforts. 
1. One must separate the ideas of those ruling for empirical reasons, under empirical conditions and as empirical individuals, from these actual rulers, and thus recognise the rule of ideas or illusions in history. 

2. One must  bring an order into this rule of ideas, prove a mystical connection among the successive ruling ideas, which is managed by understanding them as 'acts of self-determination on the part of the concept.'

3. To remove the mystical appearance of this "self-determining concept" it is changed into a person -- "Self-Consciousness" -- or, to appear thoroughly materialistic, into a series of persons, who represent the 'concept' in history, into the 'thinkers,' the 'philosophers,' the ideologists, who again are understood as the manufacturers of history, . . . as the rulers.  (Tucker 173)

Communist Manifesto

"Base and Supersturcture" 

The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation on which there arise a legal and political superstructure and to which there correspond definite forms of social consciousness.  . . .  It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness. (198)

"Letter to Joseph Bloch" 
[economic factor as the ultimate factor]
--the ultimately determining element in history is the production and reproduction of real life.  . . . [but not] the only determining one.  . . . There is an interaction of all these elements in which, amid all the endless number of accidents . . . the economic movement is finally bound to assert itself. 
-- We make our history ourselves, but first of all, under very definite assumptions and conditions. 
-- . . . history is made in such a way that the final result always arises from conflicts between individual wills, of which each in turn has been made what it is  by a variety of particular conditions of life.  (199)
-- [confirms the values of individual wills]
. . . from the fact that the wills of individuals--each of whom desire what he is impelled to  by his physical constitution and external, in the final analysis economic, circumstances. . . do not believe what they want, but are merged into an aggregate mean, common resultant, it must not be concluded that their value is equal to zero.  (200)
"Wage Labour and Capital" [a lecture] 
-- 資本的累積來自於Wage Labor的價錢所生產的商品價錢的不同﹐也就是剩餘價值(surplus value.)這些剩餘價值可以供資本家購買更多原料或wage labor. 
Labour power is . . . a commodity which its possessor, the wage worker, sells to capital.    (Tucker 204
Labour power was not always a commodity.  Labour was not always wage labour, that is, free labour.  The slave did not sell his labour to the slave owner.  . .   (Tucker 205

Capital consists of raw materials, instruments of labour and means of subsistence of all kinds, which are utilixed in order to produce new raw materials, new instruments of labour and new means of subsistence.  All these component parts of labour are creations of labour, products of labour, accumulated labour.   Accumulated labour which serves as a means of new production is capital.    (Tucker 207)

Capital does not consist in accumulated labour serving living labour as a means for new production.  It consists in living labour serving accumulated labour as a means of maintaining and multiplying the exchange value of the latter. 

"Whence, ... arises the enigmatic character of the product of labor, so soon as it assumes the form of commodities?   Clearly from this form itself.  . . . finally, the mutual relations of the producers, within which the social character of their labor affirms itself, take the form of a social relation between the products.  

Work Cited: 
Tucker, Robert C ed. The Marx and Engels Reader.  2nd Ed.  NY: Norton, 1978.
Schmitt, Richard. Introduction to Marx and Engels: A Critical Reconstruction.  London: Westview P, 1987.