作家的心理分析  (Psychobiography):
伊底帕斯情節、性別取向與藝術表現
Literary Criticism, Fall, 99Psychoanalysis;
Psychological Diseases
Leonardo
Marcel Duchamp D. H. Lawrence Edgar Allan Poe Elizabeth Bishop
Development (Psychosexual Stages)
I. Oral Stage - first year of life ( --> 18 months)
II. Anal Stage (18 mo --> 3-5)
III. Phallic Stage (3-5 --> 6-8) , also Oedipal stage
IV. Latency Stage (6-8 --> puberty)
V. Genital Stage (puberty --> death)


A. Orals - have problems with dependency needs (theory of ulcer formation)
B. Anals - have problems with aggression - either overcontrol or undercontrol.
C. Phallics - have problems with sex & sexual identity
 

Psychoanalysis and Art by Adams  p 74

--Pre-oedipal events--  including loss of love or abandonment, the period of toilet training, and the sight of the female genitals--can contribute to oedipal castration fear.

Positive oedipal constellation -- 

In the so-called negative constellation, the boy identifies with his mother and becomes, in fantasy, his father's passive love object.

By 1923, in The Ego and the Id, Freud had recognized that the Oedipal complex operated bisexually--that is, the negative and the positive constellations interact in every case. Although the boy is hostile to his father, he also loves him, which sets us an ambivalent relationship. In the 1928 essay "Dostoevsky and Parricide," Freud described the bisexuality of the Oedipus complex as hightened in neurosis and in creatin creative individuals. Whether the positive or negative constellation predominates, however, the boy fears castration—in the former as punishment and in the latter as a prerequisite for his feminine identification.[boldface added]

In girls--the fantasy that castration has already taken place precedes and paves the way for the Oedipus complex; the girl's positive Oedipus complex requires a change in object from mother to father that corresponds to renouncing the clitoris as the primary genital zone in fovaor of the vagina. …These discovery shed a new light on the importance of the girl's pre-oedipal stage and helped to explain her tendency to remain attached to her mother. …the complexity of female development, the likelihood of a prolonged Oedipus complex, and the greater flexibility of the superego compared with males.

Possible argument for Frued—

  1. penis—social construct
  2. his emphasis on bisexuality—his formulation of the Oedipus complex is a construct and that all people are bisexual.
  3. he does not talk about biology or neurology, but psyche and imago

Marcel Duchamp
Title: the letters L.H.O.O.Q. when read aloud in French sound like: 'Elle a chaud au cul' and in English - they would be  read aloud as LOOK. ) 
Image: http://members.aol.com/mindwebart3/marcelpg2.htm
from Marcel Duchamp page of Art Minimal & Conceptual Only

"[Duchamp] turned Mona Lisa into a bearded lady, implying the bisexual character of Leonardo and himself, as well as the relation of Mona Lisa to Leonardo's unconscious fantasy of the phallic mother. "

About the title:
"The combination of bisexuality and bilingualisms evokes the unconscious equation of the mouth and tongue with the female and male genitals, respectively.  It is also consistent with  the mirror image of Look and Kool in the title" (Adams 189)


D. H. Lawrence and Sons & Lovers

A. D. H. Lawrence's description of the story of Sons & Lovers is almost like that of his relationship with his mother.

A woman of character and refinement goes into the lower class, and has no satisfaction in her own life.  She has had a passion for her husband,  so the children are born of passion, and have heaps of vitality.  But as her sons grow up she selects them as loversfirst the eldest, then the second.  These sons are urged into life by their reciprocal love of their  motherurged on and on.  But when they come to manhood, they cant love, because their mother is the strongest power in their lives, and holds them. . . . The next son gets a woman who fights for his soulfights his mother.  The son loves the motherall the sons hate and are jealous of the father.  (Boulton 49)
B. Lawrence on his relationship with his mother
This has been a kind of bond between me and my mother.  We have loved each other, almost with a husband and wife love, as well as filial and maternal.  We knew each other by instinct . . . We have been like one, so sensitive to each other that we never needed words.  It has been rather terrible, and has made me, in some respects, abnormal.  (Meyers 25; underline added)

Edgar Allen Poe's
"The Tell-Tale Heart"
Remote Links;
  Local: "The Cask of Amantillado" (vocabulary and E-Text); "The Purloined Letter"
For your reference, this is another interpreation:

"The belief in the evil eye dates back to ancient times, and even today, is fairly common in India and the countries
bordering the Mediterranean Sea. References are made to it in Jewish, Islamic, Buddist and Hindu faiths. The belief
centers around the idea that those who possess the evil eye have the power to harm people or their possessions by merely looking at them. Wherever this belief exists, it is common to assign the evil eye as the cause of unexplainable illnesses and misfortunes of any kind.
              To protect oneself from the power of the eye, certain measures can be taken. In Muslim areas, the color blue is
painted on the shutters of the houses, and found on beads worn by both children and animals. There is also a specific
hand gesture named the "Hand of Fatima," named after the daughter of Mohammed. This name is also given to an amulet
in the shape of hand that is worn around the neck for protection. In some locations, certain phrases, such as " as God will" or "God bless it" are uttered to protect the individual from harm. In extreme cases, the eye, whether voluntarily or not, must be destroyed. One Slavic folktale relates the story of the father who blinded himself for fear of harming his own
children with his evil eye. "(From "The Tell-Tale Heart" page in The Poe Decoder)


Elizabeth Bishop
Reference: