Research and Bibliography; Course Fall, 1999; SCHOLARLY JOURNALS in English Studies
Documenting Sources
  • Purposes: avoid plagiarism, increase credibility by giving evidence or support, for close analysis.
  • Kinds: paraphrase and direct quote (further divided into: separated and integrated)
  • Things to Consider: punctuation; transition, USING ELLIPSES and other alterations of sources

  • Quotation: Examples (separated, but not indented )

    As for the novels, Atwood's debut The Edible Woman locates her vital position in Canadian literature. [transition; Moreover, Atwood contributes to the constructions of Canadian cultural identity.] For Atwood, "literature is a means to cultural and personal self-awareness. ¡K In her opinion, Canada's central reality is the act of survival: Canadian life and culture are decisively shaped by the demands of a harsh environment. Closely related, in Atwood's view, to this defining act of survival is the Canadian search for territorial identity" (21). [who said it?]

    Thus in Atwood's novels, the characters, especially the female protagonists, are the representation of seeking for survival and quest for self-identity.

    Quotation: Examples (1-separated and indented)

    Perhaps it is inevitable for Lennie to kill Curley's wife when he tried to keep her quiet. For Lennie, there is no difference between the puppy and Curley's wife, a human being:
      Lennie went back and looked at the dead girl. The puppy lay close to her. Lennie picked it up. "I'll throw him away," he said. "It's bad enough like it is." (100)
    Therefore, "the novel communicated most intensely of unconventional morality" (Levant 138). For readers, Lennie is not guilty though he killed Curley's wife.
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    Quotation: Examples (2-integrated)

    As Critical points out: "it was inevitable that Humanist interest in the Latin and Greek classics should also produce a new kind of English tragedy¨ (221).

    As a professor of history, Tony tells her students, "history is a construct, ¡Kany point of entry is possible and all the choices are arbitrary"(4).

    Internal Parenthetical Citation

    As Chris Miller points out, "Christopher Marlowe[, who] is of course better known for his plays" (205).
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