|Definitions||Colonialism||Postcolonialism: (De-)Colonization and Postcolonial strategies|
|Diaspora Identity and Postcolonial Identity||Major Theorists||Postcolonialism and Postmodernism|
major differences: "Modern colonilialism did more than extract tribute, goods and wealth from the countries that it conquered -- it restructured the economies of the latter, drawing them into a complex relationship with their own, so that there was a flow of human and natural resources between colonised and colonial countries.
in response and resistance to colonialism.
Text 31/32 )
--a concern with specifying the different experiences of mobile abiding characteristic of different communities. [e.g. Chinese, Caribbean and African disaporas]
--a mode of thought skeptical of the claims of the "local" and the "particular."(Robbins)
--a mode of thought that celebrates rootlessness as an epistemologically and politically enabling position (Brennan)
The semantic basis of the term 'post-colonial' might seem to suggest a concern only with the national culture after the departure of the imperial power. It has occasionally been employed in some earlier work in the area to distinguish between the periods before and after independence. . .
We use the term 'post-colonial', however, to cover all the culture affected by the imperial process from the moment of colonization to the present day.
What each of these literatures has in common beyond their special and distinctive regional characteristics is that they emerged in their presnt form out of the experience of colonization and asserted themselves by foregrounding the tension with the imperial power. (Ashcroft 1-2)
"In The Tempest, Shakespeare's single major addition to the story he found in certain pamphlets about a shipwreck in the Bermudas was to make the island inhabited befire Prospero's arrival. This single addition turned the original adventure story into an allegory of the colonial encounter" (Loomba 2)
e.g. English Study
"It can be argued that the study of English and the growth of Empire proceeded from a single ideological climate and that the development of the one is intrinsically bound up with the development of the other, both at the level of simple utility (as propaganda for instance) and at the unconscious level, where it leads to the naturalizing of constructed values (e.g. civilization, humanity, etc.) which, conversely, established 'savagery', 'native', 'primitive', as their antithesis and as the object of a reforming zeal" (Ashcroft 3 ).
canonization--mainstream and margin
"Literature was made as central to the cultural enterprise of Empire as the monarchy was to its political formation. So when elements of the periphery and margin [e.g. Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea] threatened the exclusive claims of the centre they were rapidly incorporated. This was a process, in E. Said's terms, of conscious affiliation proceeding under the guise of filiation, that is, a mimicry of the centre proceeding from a desire not only to be accepted but to be adopted and absorbed. (Ashcroft 4 )
--e.g. pidgin English, Taiwanese
(e.g. Said's example:
(e.g. Japanese-Taiwanese subject in 〈小琪的帽子〉、〈莎喲娜啦〉、《無言的山丘》、《阿爸的情人》)
(De-)Colonization and Postcolonial Reading/Writing/Social Strategies
(Undergraduate students, please read Reader's Guide pp. 190; 195-96)
Reading/Writing/Social Strategies --resistance
as subversion, or
A central issue: how its critical intentions can be recognized: how to occupy a place in dominant culture, yet maintain a perspective on it that does not accept its eurocentric/pholocentric/homophobic and heterocentrist definitions, images, and terms of analysis.
(Cf. 張小虹． 〈越界認同：擬仿/學舌/假仙的論述危機〉
Negotiation and Cultural Difference
2. race-based models which identify certain shared characteristics across various national literatures
3. comparative models of varying complexity which seek to account for particular linguistic, historical, and cultural features across two or more post-colonial literarture
4. more comprehensive comparative models which argue for features such as hybridity and syncreticity as constitutive elements of all post-colonial literatures.
(syncreticism is the process by which previously distinct linguistic categories, and , by extension, cultural formations, merge into a single new form)". (Ashcroft 15 )
Diaspora: The word "diaspora" is derived from the
Greek verb speiro (to sow) and the preposition dia (over).
When applied to humans, the ancient Greeks thought of diaspora as migration
and colonization. By contrast, for Jews, AFricans, Palestinians and
Armenians the expression acquired a more sinister and brutal meaning.
Diaspora signified a collective trauma, a banishment, where one dreamed
of home but lived in exile.
All diasporic communities settled outside their natal (or imagined natal) territories, acknowledge that "the old country"--a notion often buried deep in language, religion, custom or folklore--always has some claim on their loyalty and emotion. (Robert Cohen ix).
Five kinds of Diaspora: Victim(e.g. Jews, Africans, Armenians), Labour (Indian, Chinese), Trade (Chinese and Lebanese), Imperial (the British), Cultural diasporas(the Caribbean).
Diaspora & Hybridity: e.g. P. Gilroy's The Black Atlantic;
language--1. inadequate to describe a new place, 2. systematically destroyed by enslavement, 3. rendered unprivileged by teh imposition of the language of a colonizing power.
--linguistic alienation [silencing]; linguistic displacement of the
pre-colonial language by English (Ashcroft
de-centering, against History or any kind of totality, against humanist
or imperialist subject,
cultural strategies (e.g. parody, intertextuality, duality or indeterminacy in meaning,
problematizing of historical knowledge; irony, magic realism)
postmodernism may be complicit with multi-national imperialism--MTV (or
Edward Said: Orientalism (textbook 190); Said's postcolonial criticism
British novel as worldly text, colonial discourse
Gyaytri Spivak: the Third-World intellectual's position (193-94);
Homi Bhabha (Cf: Bhabha "Of Mimicry and Man")
For further reading: "Lost in Space: Siting/citing the in-between of Homi Bhabha's The Location of Culture" from Jouvert.Stuart Hall "Cultural Identity and Diaspora."
Sara Suleri "Woman Skin Deep"
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Is de-colonization possible?
To use 平路's terms, is Taiwan still a living entity growing and expanding naturally, or part of the world-wide "Taiwanization"?
Why do we have to learn English? Why do we only learn British and U.S. literature (but not the other literatures written in English)? Why do we have English names?
What do you think about our 南進 policy? Our use of foreign laborers?
--differences: desubjectivization and identity politics 189, 194
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〈魚骸〉故事年代——1952-1992 (Cf.1. 馬 來 西 亞 華 人 史 2. "Chinese in Malaysia" 3. A History of Race Relations in Malaysia, from Ethnic Chinese in Malaysia, CHINESE DIASPORA in Huaren; 4. 三三文學集團與神州詩社 )
( 背景p. 222-23；230？溫瑞安的神州詩社;解嚴以來的學運幼稚？)
2. 龜骨和骸骨——引文的意義；p. 226「殺龜得版，哪還能還原？」
4. 身份衝突與性慾 （p. 236）
議題：身份是建構還是自然的呼喚？（篆刻 vs. 海水、夢、性慾、骨頭）
Spivak and Bhabha vs. Parry
[Parry] . . .deconstruction's necessary privileging of the imperial text as the object of critical attention amounts discursively to an erasure of the anti-colonialist 'antive' voice and the limiting of the possibility of native resistance.
conflict--as the backward-looking impotence of exile and the forward-looking impetus to indigeneity collide. (Ashcroft136 )
e.g. 'the difference in nature and equivalence in value' between
the New World and the Old.
--globalization or decolonization? (Read Reader's Guide 193; Globalization as cultural imperialism?)
--Is "nation" a category to transcend at the present historical juncture?
Online Bibliographies for Further Studies: